The Dialectics of False Solutions
Pluralism is not an easy political ethic, even when men and women of goodwill seek it. It seems that different races, nationalities, and religions, with histories of mutual suspicion and conflicts, are inevitably bound to work against one another and not with one another.
The socialist project presented one way to overcome the problem. Whether it stemmed from the Marxist-Leninist, the social-democratic, or the trade-union tradition, the project built upon the dream that shared class interest would make national, racial, and religious antagonisms obsolete. In the course of a common struggle for the primary cause of social justice as it was defined by economic structures, such "minor" conflicts would recede. But in the more democratic socialist experience, political and union leaders and members soon learned that the human world was more complicated than their models. Worker fought worker in World War I, with trade union and socialist party