The Literature of Travel in the Japanese Rediscovery of China, 1862-1945

By Joshua A. Fogel | Go to book overview

TEN

Wartime Travel in China

From the early 1930s, and especially after the establishment of the Japanese-sponsored regime in Manchuria in 1932, travel writers on the whole began to assume a harsher, apparently less sympathetic attitude toward the Chinese people and Chinese problems in general. Many factors may have contributed to this change of tone in their narratives, not the least of which was surely the rising nationalistic mood at home in Japan and its confrontation with rising Chinese nationalism in the land they visited. Although censorship regulations did not impede the publication of accounts that favored the Chinese perspective rather than supporting Japanese intentions on the mainland, the polarizing events from the early 1930s seem to have either created genuine antagonism toward China or led to self-censorship by Japanese authors.

For a host of reasons Japanese travel on the mainland began to undergo a qualitative transformation with the increase in Sino-Japanese military clashes, which culminated in a state of war between China and Japan from the summer of 1937. Long before that year, Japanese visitors had seen signs of anti- Japanese activities connected with political and military events in Shandong, Shanghai, and elsewhere in China proper and in Manchuria. No travel writer who left an account, however--even among those allegedly captured by bandits--was ever physically injured or even seriously taunted by Chinese demonstrators or boycotters. When war became a reality of daily life, Japanese who came to China did not ordinarily stray from the centers of Japanese civilian population or, more important, Japanese military units.

For that reason, Japanese travelers began to spend more of their time in Manchuria or in area's where a Japanese military presence was at, least nearby.

-276-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Literature of Travel in the Japanese Rediscovery of China, 1862-1945
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 420

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.