There are many people on both sides of the Atlantic to whom I owe credit and thanks. For their comments, words of encouragement, reactions to chapters presented as papers in various fora, and archival and bibliographic assistance, I would like to thank Owen Ashton, Jeremy Burchardt, James Alexander Chokey, Gregory Claeys, Carl Degler, Jonathan Earle, David Eastwood, George Fredrickson, Robert Fyson, Robert G. Hall, Andrew Harris, John Reeve Huston, Neville Kirk, Jim Knox, Mark Lause, Jodie Minor, Richard Price, Karen Sawislak, Dorothy Thompson, Ronald and Mary Zboray, and David Zonderman. I am especially indebted to Paul Gilje and James Epstein, who read the manuscript for Stanford University Press and provided me with extremely helpful suggestions. I am particularly grateful to Malcolm Chase, for his hospitality, assistance, and thought-provoking questions when this project was little more than a good idea; and to John L. Brooke, whose willingness to help at a key point in my research helped make this a much better project. A large share of appreciation is reserved for my advisor, mentor and friend Peter Stansky, who has seen me through every step from dissertation idea to published book with encouragement, boundless wisdom, and well-timed criticism.
I am indebted to the staffs at the following libraries and collections in Britain: the British Library and Newspaper Library at Colindale; Special Collections, Goldsmith's Library, University of London; Tameside Local History Library, Stalybridge; Chetham's Library, Manchester; Rochdale Public Library; Oldham Local Studies Library; Bolton Public Library; Working-Class Movement Library, Salford; Manchester Central Reference Library; Colne Public Library; Preston Public Library; The History Shop, Wigan; Wigan Archives, Leigh; National Museum of Labour History, Manchester; Stoke-on-Trent Public Library, Hanley; and the Keele University Library, Stoke-on-Trent.