Global Corporate Intelligence: Opportunities, Technologies, and Threats in the 1990s

By George S. Roukis; Hugh Conway et al. | Go to book overview

The other approach to the organizational structure is the coactivational view. This view shifts the focus from explicit goals and a fixed chart to a more dynamic view of the structure by attempting to outline the structure through observing how organizational members acquire and process information and resources when they are engaged in achieving tasks or decreasing uncertainty. Organizational structure is regarded as a fluid system that can only be understood subjectively by observing the pattern of behaviors and studying decisions of individuals and subunits within the organizational boundary (defined as a low density of exchange of information and resources).

Early contributions to this approach 29 enabled researchers to abstract organizational structure into subjective models. By extension, this has led the way to development of computer simulation of organizations, 30 their networks, 31 and their learning and unlearning. 32


NOTES
1.
Harold L. Wilensky, Organizational Intelligence: Knowledge and Policy in Government and Industry ( New York: Basic Books, 1967), p. viii.
2.
Michael A. McGinnis, "The Key to Strategic Planning: Integrating Analysis and Intuition," Sloan Management Review, Fall, 1984, p. 45.
3.
See, for example, H. Aldrich, B. Mckelvey and D. Ulrich, "Design Strategy from the Population Perspective," Journal of Management, Winter, 1984.
4.
David Ulrich and Margarethe F. Wiersema, "Gaining Strategic and Organizational Capability in a Turbulent Business Environment," Academy of Management Executive, 3( 2) ( 1989).
5.
James March and Herbert Simon, Organizations ( New York: Wiley, 1958).
6.
It is noticeable that the availability of information goods and services is much higher than ever. See, for example, William Harris, "Collection in the Intelligence Process," in Intelligence Requirements for the 1980's: Clandestine Collection, ed. Roy Godson ( Washington, D.C.: National Strategy Information Center, 1982). Harris shows (pp. 173-74) how information activities accounted for a significant share of gross domestic product in developed countries.
7.
See, for example, Claudia H. Deutsch, "Dun & Bradstreet's Bid to Stay Ahead." New York Times, February 12, 1989, sec. 3, pp. 1, 6.
8.
Ulrich and Wiersema, "Gaining Strategic and Organizational Capability."
9.
See, for example, Paul R. Lawrence and Jay W. Lorsch, Organization and Environment ( Boston: Harvard Business School, Division of Research, 1967).
10.
Wilensky, Organizational Intelligence, p. viii.
11.
Ibid., p. 83.
12.
Thomas Peters and Robert Waterman, In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-run Companies ( New York: Warner Books, 1984).
13.
Ulrich and Wiersema, "Gaining Strategic and Organizational Capability."
14.
Peters and Waterman, In Search of Excellence.
15.
Bo Hedberg, "How Organizations Learn and Unlearn," in Handbook of Organizational Design, edited by Paul Nystrom and William Starbuck, (Volume 1) ( NewOxford University Press

-134-

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