not have order, stability, and sovereign units within a larger sovereign ecosphere. At best, the larger system will be unstable. In discussing the theory of hierarchy, Pattee ( 1973) wrote:
It is a central lesson of biological evolution that increasing complexity of organization is always accompanied by new levels of hierarchy controls. The loss of these controls at any level is usually malignant for the organization under that level. Furthermore, our experience with many different types of complex systems, both natural and artificial, warns us that loss of hierarchy controls often results in sudden and catastrophic failure. Simple tools may wear out slowly and predictably, but as systems grow in size and complexity they reach a limit where a new level of hierarchy control is necessary if the system is to function reliably.
Richard Falk ( 1971), while writing on the international environmental problem, succinctly observed:
It should hardly occasion surprise that the sovereign state--suitable for a simpler world or more nearly autonomous units--cannot be expected to cope with the tasks of our world. The scope of modern problems clearly overwhelms the jurisdiction of many national governments; but also the nationalist way of doing things is becoming outmoded, given the circumstances of the endangered planet.
This is an unusual book that does not conform to the general pattern because it deals with an almost unprecedented problem: the world is being saturated with pollution and nonrenewable resources are being depleted to a point at which life-support systems might be in danger of losing their ability to maintain environmental stability. Argument is made for the value of ecological balance in which the concomitant effects of undernourishment and/or malnourishment are reduced. The acceptance of the ecological stare decisis doctrine--the supremacy of ecological laws--is one of the elements or causes that contributes to producing the proposed value.
The book asserts that the existing framework of international organizations is not adequate to affect the proposed ecological doctrine. It suggests a new world economic order, based on an ecological currency such as homitrophs or energy, that is politically