Demography and Retirement: The Twenty-First Century

By Anna M. Rappaport; Sylvester J. Schieber | Go to book overview

ENDNOTES
1.
In the United States, the total fertility rate fell from a high of over 3.5 during the late 1950's to 1.74 in 1976. Since the mid 1970's the fertility rate has increased slightly reaching 2.05 in 1990.
2.
These data include all government expenditures on social security and for government employee pensions paid by national and local governments.
3.
The proportion of gross domestic product devoted to pensions in Japan is projected to increase from 4.2 percent in 1980 to 13.4 percent in 2025 ( Heller), et al, 1990).
4.
This discussion draws on information in Gordon ( 1988), The Wyatt Co. ( 1990), Foster ( 1990), EBRI ( 1990), and U.S. Social Security Administration ( 1991) among other general discussions of social security systems in these countries.
5.
The maximum attainable benefits reported for each of the six countries are reported in EBRI ( 1990). They represent the maximum benefit payable to a fully insured single worker retiring at the normal retirement age. National currency is converted into U.S. dollars using exchange rates as of January 15, 1990. All other values reported in the chapter are converted using the average exchange rate that prevailed during the first quarter of 1990.
6.
The discussion covers only the West German social security system prior to unification. Efforts to merge the systems of East and West Germany are now underway (see Furer and Lang, 1990).
7.
Accumulation of assets in the social security funds was, in part, a function of post-war inflations that increased the nominal asset prices. In fact, the social security systems had only a limited degree of funding ( Schmaehl, 1989).
8.
For a discussion of the movement toward equalization of treatment of men and women in the German social security system, see Puidak ( 1987).
9.
For a detailed discussion of the Japanese social security programs, see Clark ( 1990).
10.
Hill ( 1990) provides an interesting historical review of the develpment of social security in the United Kingdom.
11.
The high participation rates of older Japanese men occurs despite the availability of social security benefits at age 60, about half of the labor force being covered by a private pension, and relatively high average per capita income.
12.
OECD ( 1988) examines the challenges to social security posed by populatin aging in the developed countries.
13.
This discussion is based on information in The Wyatt Co. ( 1990), Foster ( 1990), and Turner and Dailey ( 1990) along with several other general reviews of international pensions. For Horlick ( 1980).
14.
Clark ( 1990) provides a detailed discussion of Japanese pensions.

-284-

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Demography and Retirement: The Twenty-First Century
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • MEMBERS OF THE PENSION RESEARCH COUNCIL v
  • Purpose of the Council vii
  • Contents ix
  • 1: Overview 1
  • Introduction 1
  • 2: Demographic Change in the United States, 1970-2050 19
  • ENDNOTES 47
  • Stephen C. Goss 53
  • Barry Edmonston 57
  • Introduction 57
  • 3: Expected Changes in the Workforce and Implications for Labor Markets 73
  • Introduction 73
  • Joseph F. Quinn 105
  • 4: Can Our Social Insurance Systems Survive the Demographic Shifts of the Twenty-First Century? 111
  • Introduction 112
  • ENDNOTES 148
  • 5: The Impact of the Demographic Transition on Capital Formation 163
  • Introduction 163
  • ENDNOTES 180
  • Alicia H. Munnell 183
  • 6: Implications of Demographic Change for Design of Retirement Programs 189
  • 7: Trends in Health Among the American Population 225
  • Introduction 225
  • ENDNOTES 242
  • Discussions 243
  • 8: Population Aging and Retirement Policy: An International Perspective 255
  • Introduction 255
  • ENDNOTES 284
  • Robert J. Myers 293
  • Bibliography 297
  • Index 315
  • Contributors 323
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