ULTRAMONTANISM. See GALLICANISM.
UNIONS. See COALITIONS LAW.
L'UNIVERS, conservative Catholic daily newspaper. In 1833 Abbé Jacques Paul Migne ( 1800-1875) founded a small Catholic sheet in Paris. Very shortly, under lay leadership, it became the key Catholic journal in France and remained so until 1914. Throughout its existence, its actual subscription list was small, but its editorials became the inspiration for reactionary expressions of all kinds, including sermons. Louis Veuillot was not associated with the paper until the late 1830s and then only as an occasional contributor. In 1843, however, he became the principal figure in its operation, though a priest, Melchior Du Lac, was a greater force than generally has been recognized. Charles de Coux ( 1787- 1864) was designated editor along with Veuillot during the years before 1848 in order to promote Catholic unity and to serve as a check on Veuillot, who as early as 1844 was imprisoned for a month because of journalistic excesses. The proprietor, Taconet, for decades ensured its existence. After 1848 Veuillot was completely unchecked and for quite a few years accommodated his journal to what appeared to be a president and emperor favorable to Catholic reaction and ultramontanism (papal sovereignty). Veuillot complicated matters among Catholics by his quarrels with various bishops, notably Mgr. Marie Sibour ( 1792- 1857), archbishop of Paris, with whom he disputed the role of the classics in education.
Having supported the emperor during the Crimean War, Veuillot attacked Napoleon III's increasing support of the cause of Italian unification at the expense of Pope Pius IX. For publishing on 28 January 1860 the pope's encyclical condemning the enemies of temporal power, L'Univers was suspended. It did not appear again until 1867, although to some degree another journal of Taconet, Le monde, took its place. The revival of Veuillot's paper on 19 February 1867 was the result of a personal decision by the emperor. L'Univers continued its ultramontane and reactionary role until 1870. The high-water mark was its coverage of the Vatican Council in 1870 and its triumphant announcement of the