Baseball Economics: Current Research

By John Fizel; Elizabeth Gustafson et al. | Go to book overview

15
Labor Relations in Japanese Baseball

James B. Dworkinand Gregory S. Jelf


INTRODUCTION

Baseball, like many sports, has an international identity. And professional baseball, like many industries, has an institutional identity. As one moves from locale to locale, or from nation to nation, the nature of the game and how it is played have different characteristics. Likewise, as one moves from nation to nation, or from economy to economy, the institutional arrangements governing labor relations have different characteristics. In this chapter we will examine the institutional characteristics and labor relations practices of professional baseball in Japan, where, next to North America, professional baseball is most fully developed as an industry.

Japanese professional baseball's twelve-team structure, with six teams each in the Pacific and Central Leagues, has existed since 1958. Each team plays a 130-game schedule [ Maitland ( 1991)]. The season lasts from April to October, but player training of various sorts exists for approximately ten and a half months of the year. Tie scores for regular season games are allowed. In the Pacific League, a tie is declared if the score is deadlocked after four hours of play or twelve innings, whichever comes first. The Central League has a fifteen-inning limit before a tie is declared. The Pacific League uses a designated hitter and the Central League does not [ Whiting ( 1990)]. Beyond these technical differences, the rules of the Japanese game are the same as the North American game. The collective professional identity of the baseball industry in Japan, however, is quite different from the North American major leagues.

In addition to a brief overview of Japanese baseball's labor relations system, we discuss two specific labor relations practices. The first of these is salary arbitration. In Japan, professional ball players have contracted away their right to use agents, and thus any player who requests arbitration must argue his own

-201-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Baseball Economics: Current Research
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 230

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.