A History of Modern Hungary, 1867-1994

By Jörg K. Hoensch; Kim Traynor | Go to book overview

CHAPTER THREE
Hungary Between The Wars

THE STRUGGLE FOR INTERNAL POLITICAL STABILITY AND TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY, 1918-20

From Károlyi's Baurgeois-Democratic Revolution to Kun's Soviet Republic

The Kádrolyi's government's last-minute attempt to persuade the Entente Powers to conclude a separate peace with an independent Hungary and make generous concessions to persuade the non-Magyar peoples to remain within Hungary failed during the first days of November 1918. Despite the agreement of the Allies to leave a final settlement of the new east central European frontiers until after the Paris Peace Conference the Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenes, Rumanians, Croats, Serbs and Slovenes, helped by the French military, now seized those parts of Hungary to which they laid claim. Ignoring the armistice signed by the commander of the French Balkan army, Franchet D'Esperey, and the Károlyi government in Belgrade on 7 November 1918, the Rumanian National Council in Arad notified the Hungarian authorities on 10 November of the takeover of the administration in twenty-three counties and parts of three other counties. Rumanian troops advanced into Transylvania whose annexation was unilaterally proclaimed by the Bucharest government on 11 January 1919. The Serbs had already taken over the administration of the Bácska, the Baranya and the western Banat on 24 November 1918, presenting the Hungarians with a well-nigh irreversible fait accompli. Czech troops advanced into Slovakia, or 'Upper Hungary' as it was formerly called, and were poised to occupy the districts of Ung, Ugosca, Bereg and Máramaros with their Ruthenian population, to

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