are Voodoo practitioners, others are Catholic practitioners. They emigrate for
multiple reasons: "Prospect for work, higher income, joining family, further
education, and fear of the growing chaos and decline in Haiti mix with the desire
to escape army, police, government and rich landowner harassment" ( Weinstein
Segal 1992: 123). However, in spite of the dissimilarities of their economic,
social, and political experiences and the differences in their motivation to
emigrate, Haitians are all united by a common denominator: racial pride and a
sense of belonging to the same nation. This, I believe, is at the root of Haitian
The word buccaneer is derived from Arawak boucan (fire for roasting).
The gold supply in Hispaniola when the Spanish came in 1492 was the main
purpose for their settlement on the island for almost two centuries. It was nearly
mined out in 1697, at the time of the Treaty of Ryswick.
When the Indian population -- not used to the hard labor required by the
extraction of gold from the mines -- was decimated at a rapid pace, Barthelemy de Las
Casas began to import slaves from Africa in 1505.
Dupuy ( 1989: 26) also reports that, through their positions in the colony, many
of the colonial officials had managed to accumulate wealth and purchase sugar
plantations. Trouillot ( 1990: 41) claims that conflicts between large planters and the
governor were nonetheless common from the 1720s on.
There are some discrepancies with regard to the total number of Black and
Mulatto Affranchis. Moreau de Saint-Méry (as quoted in Nicholls 1979: 24-25)
estimated that one-third of the Affranchis were Black. Yet, another source (also quoted
in Nicholls 1979: 25) claimed that "there were not more than 1500 of them [Black Affranchis] in all."
Courmand ( 1968), as quoted in Dupuy ( 1989: 28). The aristocratie de peau is in
contrast with the aristocratie de nom ou de naissance (name or birth aristocracy) that
presumably one can inherit from the Whites.
Moreau de Saint-Méry ( 1958), as quoted in Nicholls ( 1979: 25). See also Labelle ( 1978: 49) and Dupuy ( 1989: 29).
The Code Noir was a document drafted under Louis XIV to regulate the treatment
of slaves and the status of other non-Whites, including the Affranchis.
Dupuy ( 1989: 54) also indicates that the human toll was very heavy: "Of the
40,000 whites in Saint-Domingue in 1789, there remained between 5,000 and
10,000; the rest had either been killed or had emigrated. Of the Original 30,000
mulattoes and free blacks, 20,000 remained. And between one-third and one-half of
the approximately 500,000 slaves had been killed."
Trouillot ( 1977), as quoted in Dupuy ( 1989: 57).
Madiou ( 1847), as quoted in Trouillot ( 1990: 46).
The color ideology of the Mulatto elite was referred to as the mulâtriste
ideology. It rests fundamentally on values, traditions (such as language, clothing),
and norms derived from Europe. The ideology of the Blacks is known as the noiriste
ideology. In contrast, it advocates a return to African values. The noiriste ideology
culminated during the U.S. occupation in 1915-1934. See Nicholls ( 1979), Hurbon
( 1987, chapter 6), Dupuy ( 1989: 122-23), and Trouillot ( 1990: 124-28).
Charles ( 1990: 72) indicates that "of a total of 35 presidents, 13 to 15 are