Haitian Immigrants in Black America: A Sociological and Sociolinguistic Portrait

By Fiore Zéphir | Go to book overview

it was argued that French was used as a social marker to perpetuate traditional social stratifications among Haitians and to project a better image of oneself. Third, the role of English was examined. Its primary functions are to enable one to secure a decent job and to establish a link with the outer environment. Additionally, it was noted that, in the case of Creole/English bilinguals, English can also be used as a social marker in an attempt to remove some of the negative attibutes generally associated with monolingual speakers. In the next chapter, some of these points will be further developed in the context of actual language use patterns and distribution.


NOTES
1.
Some researchers have sought to make a distinction between sociolinguistics and sociology of language. According to Hudson ( 1980: 4-5), sociolinguistics is the study of language in relation to society, whereas the sociology of language is the study of society in relation to language. For more on this distinction, see also Wardhaugh ( 1992: 13-15).
2.
Kedourie ( 1961), as quoted in Edwards ( 1985: 23).
3.
Barnard ( 1965, 1969), as quoted in Edwards ( 1985: 23).
4.
Ferguson ( 1959: 325-26) first coined the term diglossia to refer to a situation where there exist two superposed varieties of a language, the high and the low. Each variety, he observed, seems to have a definite role to play, and they are used under different conditions. The term has been extended since to include two different languages as well ( Fishman 1968). For more on the definition of diglossia, see also Fasold ( 1984).
5.
For a complete review of the eduction reform in Haiti, see Locher, Malan, and Pierre-Jacques ( 1987).
6.
As translated in Valdman ( 1984: 78), and also in Stafford ( 1987b: 204).
7.
For a review of these linguistic developments, see Zéphir ( 1990: 17-27).
8.
For a discussion of the rules of code choice, see Zéphir ( 1990 and 1995).
9.
The names Réginald de Lespinasse and Dieudonné Lorméus, used here to illustrate a specific point, are purely fictitious. I do not know such individuals. Therefore, any resemblance to living persons is totally accidental.
10.
LeRoy Jackson is also a fictitious name. Once again, any resemblance to a living person is totally accidental.
11.
The term "nationism" was first introduced by Fishman ( 1968). It is also used in his later work ( 1989: 108).
12.
A discussion about the effectiveness of these programs, and about a meaningful education for Haitian students, will be offered in chapter 7.
13.
New York City Board of Education Division of Bilingual Education Facts and Figures ( 1993-94), available through the HABETAC office at the City College of the City University of New York.
14.
Details about the IU and FIU workshops are offered only because of my personal involvement with them. There is absolutely no intent to overlook similar programs at other institutions.
15.
Personal interview with Dr. Joseph, conducted on June 14, 1994, in her office at HABETAC, located at the City College of the City University of New York, School of Education, R5/206 Convent Avenue at 138th Street, Manhattan, New York.
16.
As stated in the HABETAC mission statement. For an opinion about the

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Haitian Immigrants in Black America: A Sociological and Sociolinguistic Portrait
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Tables and Maps vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • Part I - Haitian Immigrants: Sociological Dimensions 1
  • 1 - Haitians in New York City 3
  • Notes 22
  • 2 - Premigration Experience of Haitian Immigrants 25
  • Notes 40
  • 3 - Emergence and Essence of Haitian Immigrant Ethnicity 43
  • Notes 67
  • 4 - Haitians' Responses to African Americans 69
  • Notes 96
  • Part II - Haitian Immigrants: Sociolinguistic Dimensions 97
  • 5 - Language and Ethnicity in the Haitian Immigrant Context 99
  • Notes 120
  • 6 - Patterns of Language Use of Haitian Immigrants 123
  • Notes 143
  • 7 - Haitians, American Cultural Pluralism, and Black Ethnics 145
  • Notes 160
  • Appendix - Interview Questions 161
  • Bibliography 167
  • Index 177
  • About the Author *
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