As members of the human race, Haitians, like any other Black group, are entitled to the same basic rights enjoyed by others: the right to a decent job, a decent living environment, decent medical care, and a meaningful education. They
are entitled to be treated with dignity and respect; they have the right to be
considered full-fledged individuals or gran moun, rather than members of a lesser
social group. Finally, they are entitled to retain their ethnic identity, for the
destruction of ethnicity is the destruction of one's essence or one's being. In
sum, the Haitian immigrant simply wishes to be empowered to become a productive individual while remaining deeply rooted in his or her ethnic identity,
without being cursed and spit upon. This wish transpires poignantly in the
words of the renowned American poet of African descent, Langston Hughes:
A world I dream where black or white
Whatever race you be
Would share the boundaries of the earth
And every man is free.11
For a specific example of discrimination against Third World immigrants, see Baer's ( 1994) article about the Vietnamese refugees in California. See also Takaki
( 1989) for a complete history of Asian immigrants in America. In fact, Takaki
cautions about "the myth of the model minority" and states that "actually, in terms of
personal incomes, Asian Americans have not reached equality" (pp. 474-75).
Moreover, he recounts numerous examples of discrimination against Asian
Americans, which has resulted in the killing of several members of this racial
"minority" (pp. 474-91).
For more on bilingual education, see O. Garcia ( 1991); Padilla, Fairchild, and 2Valadez, ( 1990); and Fradd and Tikunoff ( 1987).
For a very useful discussion on the legal issues involved in bilingual education,
see Fradd and Vega ( 1987), Crawford ( 1989), and Malakoff and Hakuta ( 1990).
As reproduced in Nieto ( 1992: 162).
For a description of the goals, principles, and strategies of multicultural
education, see Banks ( 1981, 1991), Gollnick and Chinn ( 1986), R. Garcia ( 1991), Nieto ( 1992), Grant ( 1992); and Sleeter and Grant ( 1994).
"Haitian Educators Work for Education Reform in Time of Crisis" (vol. 11, no. 16, October 6, 1994).
It is useful to recall informants' statements reported in chapter 3.
These verses are from an ode delivered by James Russell Lowell at Harvard
University in 1861 and reproduced in Glazer ( 1987: 19).
These words are borrowed from Fishman ( 1978) and are quoted in O. García's
introductory chapter ( 1991: 10).
As quoted in Takaki ( 1987a: 12). Allan Bakke was a student who was not
admitted to the University of California-Berkeley Medical School. He filed a suit
against the school, claiming that affirmative action discriminated against him as a
White person and that it constituted "reverse discrimination."
As reproduced in Bryce-Laporte ( 1980: 471).