As the Twig Is Bent--Lasting Effects of Preschool Programs

By Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. | Go to book overview

3-year-old can learn in a relatively short time that persist in his subsequent behavior.

The study raises some points about the deficit hypothesis as well. If one accepts that suggestion in its original meaning, namely, that the child must learn A before B, and the earlier he learns A the better off he is, there may be validity there as well.

The Harlem Study suggests that a program that primarily emphasizes the child as compared to the child and his culture can have beneficial effects. No one could argue that changing the family and the community as well as the child might not do more for subsequent scholastic performance, but the fact is that a program aimed primarily at the child does have durable effects. Of the programs in the Consortium, the Harlem Study had less parental input than the average program, and its effects were as positive as the other programs. We believe that to have parents involved should contribute more, but data are needed to show this.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This study was supported by grants from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (HD 02253), the Education Commission of the States, and the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families.

Too many have participated in this study over 18 years to acknowledge separately. One, Dr. Ronald Siegel, is particularly appreciated for his participation over that entire period.


REFERENCES

Borden B. C. Concept level, separation behavior and preschool performance of three-year-olds. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, City University of New York, 1971.

Bronfenbrenner U. The ecology of human development. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Lasting effects after preschool. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, DHEW Publication No. (OHDS) 79-30178, 1978.

Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Persistence of preschool effects: Status, stress and coping skills. Year 2 report, Grant No. 90-C-1311(03) from the Administration for Children, Youth, and Families. Office of Human Development Services, DHHS, October 1980.

Dennis W., & Najarian P. "Infant development under environmental handicap". Psychological Monographs, 1957, 71, No. 7.

Deutsch M. "The role of social class in language development and cognition". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1965, 35, 78-87.

Goldfarb W. "Psychological privation in infancy and subsequent adjustment". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1945, 15, 247-255.

Harlow H. F. "The nature of love". American Psychologist, 1958, 13, 673-685.

Hunt J. McV. Intelligence and experience. New York: Ronald Press, 1961.

Kohs S. C. Intelligence measurement--A psychological and statistical study based upon the block- design tests. New York: Macmillan, 1923.

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