duction of "works for hire." Ownership of copyrights increasingly rests with the capitalists who have the machinery and capital to manufacture and distribute them.
Second, there has always been a tension between the monopolistic character of intellectual property and its normative goal of enhancing the flow of information and ideas. Copyright seeks to restrict the use of a work to those willing and able to pay for it. This exclusivity can have the opposite result than that intended by the founders of the system and may exacerbate the gaps between the informationrich and the information-poor. The oligopolistic structure of the communications system contributes further to the widening of these gaps. The incorporation of new communications technologies into this oligopolistic structure have undermined their potential to bring about an increase in the range and forms of intellectual and artistic creativity. In sum, their potential to significantly enhance participation in the communications system has been thwarted. These problems are rooted in the political-economic structure of communications, as the following chapters demonstrate.