Copyrighting Culture: The Political Economy of Intellectual Property

By Ronald V. Bettig | Go to book overview

the necessity of buying more copies of a few hits, his selection had narrowed significantly.127 Similarly, the sales of videos by black directors or with black casts lag behind those of other videos with comparable box-office grosses or other genre specific movies.128 The increasing incursion of chain video retailers has had the same effect on media diversity as in other retail media sectors, from book publishing,129 to newspaper publishing,130 to sales of musical recordings.131 Consequently, a handful of companies control the production, distribution, and sale of filmed entertainment videos. In sum, the VCR, like cable, has become one more morsel in the large media conglomerate food chain. How this has occurred at the international level is the focus of the next chapter.


Notes
1
Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Sony Corporation of America, 480 E. Supp. 429 (C.D. Cal. 1979); Sony Corporation of America, Inc. v. Universal City Studies, Inc., 659 F.2d 963 (9th Cir. 1981); Sony Corporation of America, Inc. v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 464 U.S. 417 ( 1984).
2
"Public of users" is a term to describe the private use of reproductive technologies to copy and make use of copyrighted material, for example, home taping and playback of broadcasts (television and radio), reproduction of prerecorded phonograph recordings and videocassettes, photocopying of published printed works, copying of computer software, etc. This is use of copyrighted works for private, noncommercial purposes, including scholarly and educational uses permitted under the fair use doctrine.
3
Ralph Miliband, The State in Capitalist Society, New York: Basic Books, 1969, p. 138.
4
The Associated Press, "Survey of Judges' Income", Christian Science Monitor, June 6, 1989, p. 8; The Associated Press, "Most Judges Earn More Off Bench, Study Says", Chicago Tribune, June 5, 1989, p. 4.
5
David Kairys, "Introduction", in D. Kairys (ed.), Politics and Law, New York: Pantheon Books, 1982, pp. 1-7, p. 5.
6
James Lardner, "Annals of Law: The Betamax Case -- 1,2", New Yorker, April 6, 1987, pp. 45 ff., and April 13, 1987, pp. 60 ff.
7
Miliband, p. 138.
8
Ben Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly ( 4th ed.), Boston: Beacon, 1992, p. 50.
9
Kairys, "Introduction", p. 5.
10
Miliband, pp. 141-142.
11
Pierre Joseph Proudhon, What Is Property? An Inquiry into the Principle of Right and Government, New York: Dover Publications, 1970, pp. 393-397.
12
Miliband, p. 142.
13
Miliband, p. 142.
14
Miliband, p. 143.
15
Miliband, p. 143.
16
David Kairys, "Legal Reasoning". in D. Kairys (ed.), Politics and Law, New York: Pantheon Books, 1982, pp. 11-17, p. 17.
17
Roberto Unger, The Critical Legal Studies Movement, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986, p. 1.

-181-

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