Madagascar: Conflicts of Authority in the Great Island

By Philip M. Allen | Go to book overview

valuation and comparative advantage -- and imports were cut in half from 1983 to 1988. Rice imports, once nearly 300,000 tons, were capped at 42,000 in 1989 by agreement with the World Bank and IMF, requiring Malagasy producers to send 2.7 million tons into the newly free domestic market in 1990. Production fell 300,000 tons short of these expectations, however, and climatic and market factors reduced the 1991 production of rice by a further 10 percent, exhausting the state's buffer stocks. For 1991-1992, the Food and Agricultural Organization registered a lamentable need for continuing imports of some 100,000 tons of rice and similar quantities of wheat to feed a still-expanding population.150 Rice growers thereupon held back production during 1992 in expectation of more advantageous and stable prices.151 Current buffer stocks allow the economy somewhat more flexibility in supplying the rice market than in the past, but to reach food self-sufficiency for a population that consumes 700 grams of rice per adult each day, the liberalized market will require annual production of 2.8 to 3 million tons. This target entails either substantial expansion of acreage or improvement over the average yield of 2.5 tons of paddy rice per hectare.

Agricultural productivity, improved infrastructure, light industrial processing, cheaper energy, nontraditional exports (including tourism), and human resource enhancement represent the sectors of power for development of the Malagasy economy. French and other investors are reportedly interested in such public works as road construction and telecommunications, as well as in food-processing industries, mining, and tourism. International cooperation must continue -- not only in debt relief and concessionary project assistance but in new international partnerships as well. Some of these prospects, including cooperation among the neighboring islands in the Indian Ocean Commission, are discussed in the following chapter.


NOTES
1.
World Bank, World Development Report 1991 ( Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1992); Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), Country Report, no. 3, 1991, p. 21, and Country Profile 1993- 1994, ( London: EIU), p. 9.
2.
United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Second Human Development Report, 1991, Third Human Development Report, 1993 ( New York: UNDP, 1991, 1993); see commentary in Marchés Tropicaux et Mediterranéens (MTM), no. 2482, June 4, 1993; EIU, Country Report, no. 3, 1991, p. 22, and Africa Report, July-August 1991, pp. 5-6, 11. With life expectancy remaining at barely fifty-five years, Madagascar's positive scores depend on the 1990 literacy indicator of 80.2 percent.
3.
See MTM, nos. 2435, July 10, 1992, p. 1803, and 2480, May 21, 1993, pp. 1297- 1300.
4.
Concise inventories of the island's advantages can be found in Philippe Hugon's preface to Olivier Ramahatra, Madagascar: Une économie en phase d'ajustement ( Paris: Harmattan, 1989); Country Economic Memorandum, no. 5996, 1986 ( Washington, D.C.: World Bank). Franqois Falloux and World Bank, Plan d'action environnemental ( Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1988), v. 1, p. R-1; Frederic L. Pryor, Malawi and Madagascar: The Political Economy of Poverty, Equity, and Growth ( Washington, D.C.: Oxford University Press, 1990), ch. 9; Patrick Rajoelina and Alain Ramelet, Madagascar: Lagrande île

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Madagascar: Conflicts of Authority in the Great Island
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents ix
  • Tables and Illustrations xi
  • Preface and Acknowledgments xiii
  • 1 - The Virtue of Insularity 1
  • Notes 26
  • 2 - Politics: From Paternalism to Revolution 31
  • Notes 74
  • 3 - Ratsiraka's Republic: Revolution as Myth 79
  • Notes 117
  • 4 - Society in Modern Madagascar 121
  • Notes 162
  • 5 - Madagascar's Economy: Flight from Reality 168
  • Notes 213
  • 6 - Conclusion: Continuity as Revolution 220
  • Notes 236
  • Glossary 239
  • Selected Bibliography 242
  • About the Book and Author 247
  • Index 248
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