The Misteaching of Academic Discourses: The Politics of Language in the Classroom

By Lilia I. Bartolome | Go to book overview

Notes

Chapter One
1
The phrase low-status linguistic-minority refers to culturally and linguisti-- cally distinct groups that are also politically, socially, and economically subordi-- nate in the greater society. Though individual members of these groups may not consider themselves subordinate in any manner to the English-speaking white "mainstream," they nevertheless are members of a greater collective that histor-- ically has been perceived and treated as subordinate and inferior by the domi-- nant society.
2
Angela Carrasquillo explained that the term Latino is used in the United States to identify persons of Spanish-speaking origin or descent who designate themselves as Mexican American, Chicano, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or of other His-- panic origin. There are an estimated 20 million Latinos in the United States, and approximately 12.1 million (63 percent) of these individuals are of Mexican Amer-- ican origin. Latinos are one of the fastest-growing segments of the population in the United States. It is estimated that by the year 2000, 30 million (or 10 percent of the total U.S. population) and about 16 percent of school-aged children and per-- sons 18 to 24 years of age will be Latino. See Carrasquillo A. L. ( 1991). Hispanic Children and Youth in the United States. NewYork: Garland Publishing).
3
For a more in-depth discussion of Chicano academic underachievement, see Valencia Richard ( 1991). Chicano School Failure and Success: Research and Policy Agendas for the 1990s. NewYork: Falmer Press.
4
National Commission on Secondary Education for Hispanics ( 1984). "Make Something Happen": Hispanics and Urban High School Reform, vol. 1, Report of the National Commission on Secondary Education for Hispanics. New York: Hispanic Policy Development Project.
5
For in-depth discussions regarding the reported relationship between academic achievement and English language proficiency over time, see: Arias M. B. ( 1986). "The Context of Education for Hispanic Students: An Overview". American Journal of Education, 95(1): 26-57; Cummins J. ( 1989). Empowering Minority Students. Sacramento: California Association for Bilingual Education; and Macedo D. ( 1994). Literacies of Power. What Americans Are Not Allowed to Know. Boulder: Westview Press.
6
Arias M. B. ( 1986). "The Context of Education for Hispanic Students: An Overview". American Journal of Education, 95(1): 26-57; Carrasquillo A. L. ( 1991). Hispanic Children and Youth in the United States. New York: Garland Publishing.

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