I would like to thank a number of people. This book has been enriched by my conversations with Fred Alford; his sensitivity, probing questions, and wide knowledge of group theory and dynamics contributed enormously to the theoretical and historical argument. I am deeply indebted to his presence and insights. George Quester and Victor Wolfenstein read the entire manuscript and offered valuable advice. Roger Haydon encouraged the pursuit of the project; his guidance concerning argument and thematic structure was invaluable. I am also grateful to Jane Flax, Fred Frohock, Richard Konigsberg, Roger Lewin, Bonnie Oppenheimer, Stanley Renshon, Seymour Rubenfeld, Morton Schoolman, and Linda Zerilli for thoughtful suggestions during the evolution of the manuscript. Jerrold Post provided the opportunity to present this research at his continuing seminar in political psychology at the Elliot School, George Washington University, in addition to an invitation to address the 1995 International Association of Political Psychology's annual meeting's plenary session, convened at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Paul Golob, my editor at Basic Books, generously gave his support and editorial assistance.
For their invitations to present this research, I acknowledge the political science and psychiatric faculties at Syracuse University; the Student Government Association and political science department at the State University of New York, Albany; Shaare Tefila Congregation in Silver Spring, Maryland; the Eastern Regional Conference on Dissociative Disorders in Washington, D.C.; the Department of Government and Politics at the University of Maryland, College Park; and the Multiple Personality Study Group of the greater Washington, D.C., area. I am also grateful to my graduate students for feedback in courses on genocide and mass murder and the general theme of scapegoating.