nings of Broadcasting in the West Indies 1920-1949. Ph.D. dissertation, University of
All quotations from The Europa World Yearbook ( 1991), p. 370.
For further discussion on Jamaican popular music, read/listen to The Story of
Jamaican Music, a four-CD compilation by
Island Records Ltd., 1993.
Alphonse Cassel, better known as "Arrow," is a major Soca performer and producer. Paul McCartney and Stevie Wonder recorded their global hit "Ebony and Ivory"
at this studio.
The "Shouter Baptist" represents a valuable connection with West African religiosity. It also provides a rich site for the exploration of African retentions and survivals
in the African diaspora in the Caribbean. The "Shouter Baptist" reality is connected
with other syncretisms such as Voodoo and Santeria in the Americas.
For a substantial exploration of the topic, see
Eric Williams, From Columbus to
Castro: The History of the Caribbean 1492-1969 ( London: Andre Deutsch, 1983).
From The Europa World Yearbook ( 1991), p. 555.
Erwin Thomas's dissertation, Beginnings of Broadcasting in the West Indies 1920-
1949, examines this process and isolates the tensions between the Radio Corporation of
America and the British government on the establishment of commercial broadcasting in
the West Indies. In Columbus to Castro,
Eric Williams reports that the British government was so indebted to the United States as a result of World War II that it was in an
asymmetrical negotiating position in matters of foreign policy and economics. Thomas
concludes that the British government's decision to facilitate the creation of Rediffusion
and award it a license to operate in the West Indies and other parts of the British Empire
involved the assertion of independence by the British in the asymmetrial condition.
For further discussions on this theme, see Rex Nettleford, Inward Stretch Outward
Reach: A Voice from the Caribbean ( London: MacMillian Caribbean, 1993).
Central Rediffusion Services. ( 1956). Commercial broadcasting in the West Indies. London: Butterworths Scientific Publications.
The Europa World Yearbook. ( 1991). London: Europa Publications.
A Group of Caribbean Experts. ( 1981). The Caribbean Community in the 1980s. Georgetown, Guyana: The Caribbean Community Secretariat.
Jagan C. ( 1972). The West on trial: The fight for Guyana's freedom. German Democratic
Republic: Seven Seas Press.
Jamaican Institute of Political Education and the
Eastern Caribbean Institute for Democracy. ( 1990). Caribbean Media Directory. Kingston, Jamaica: Jamaican Institute
of Political Education and the Eastern Caribbean Institute for Democracy.
Nettleford R. ( 1993). Inward stretch, outward reach: A voice from the Caribbean. London: MacMillan Caribbean.
Rodney W. ( 1981). A history of the Guyanese working people, 1881-1905. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Shahabudden M. ( 1983). From plantocracy to nationalization: A profile of sugar. Georgetown, Guyana: University of Guyana.
Thomas C. ( 1985). The poor and the powerless: Economic policy and change in the
Caribbean. New York: Monthly Review Press.