The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

king/military and people, fought for more than a thousand years, was stopped in 1849 with the introduction of the first Danish constitution. Since then, the armed forces have been regarded as just another interest group. The third area of democratization is the recruitment system of the defense organization, as in the "supermarket model," where conscription, militia, and enlistment are offered at the same time and where conscripts are treated very liberally. However, within most areas of the military profession such as function and career pattern, politicians do not exercise any significant influence. In short, from security policy through defense policy and military organization and to the officer corps, a declining degree of political influence is found. But, as the new selective security policy will make politicians responsible for the death of Danish soldiers in the "out-of-area" UN/NATO/CSCE missions, an increased democratic influence on the armed forces is likely. On the other hand, with more masters to serve (such as the Danish Parliament, the government, the UN, NATO, and CSCE), all military establishments will gain more room for political maneuvering by playing both ends against the middle. Actually, this has happened lately, when the Danish armed forces in UN units in the former Yugoslavia criticized the civil UN authorities for prohibiting Danish tanks there from operating and made members of the Danish Parliament question this UN policy.

The second tendency is civilization, that is, the armed forces have introduced into its organization several civil aspects from the other governmental agencies. Here, civilization is most clearly found at the lowest levels. Education, lack of esprit de corps, and increased career competition exemplify these trends. With the new policy of selective security demanding Danish armed forces for the battlefield, the civilization process is expected to stop.

The third tendency is professionalization. Evidence of this development is fewer conscripts per professional soldiers, fewer soldiers per capita, more enlisted men and officers, and more need for different types of professional practitioners due to the many new technological weapon systems implemented within the Danish armed forces. This process of professionalization with increased need for expertise will continue in the era of selective security. But at the same time, the professional influence will be challenged by the politicians. In the future, officers and politicians will meet in more open confrontations discussing the conditions, aims, and methods for Danish military contribution to UN, CSCE, and other international operations. The outcome is determined already. In a democratic society, where politization and professionalization meet, the latter is bound to lose because of the democratic legitimacy of the former.

In short, selective security will increase politization and limit civilization and professionalization.


NOTES
1.
Denmark accepts the independence declaration of Norway in 1814, of the island of Iceland in 1944, and the Home Rule of the Faroe Islands in 1946 and of Greenland

-100-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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