The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

membership in violent groups is punishable by death. Army generals who served in these tribunals have been targeted for assassination by the militants.47 Moreover, the media gave wide coverage to Mubarak's visits to the military in 1994 and his denunciation of terrorism in his address to the officers; the latter responded that state power has "sharp teeth" to be used against the "terrorists who aim at destabilizing Egypt."48 The military's role during this critical juncture may prove to be a major determinant of the direction of Egyptian politics in the next decade.


NOTES
1.
On comparing the cases of Egypt and Turkey see Mostafa Kamel El-Sayyid, "The Role of Leadership in the Civilianization Process of Reform Oriented Military Regimes", (master's thesis, University of California, 1971); and Richard H. Dekmejian, "Egypt and Turkey: The Military in the Background", in Roman Kolkowicz and A. Korbonski, eds., Soldiers, Peasants and Bureaucrats ( London, Allen and Unwin, 1982), 28-51.
2.
Ibrahim A. Karawan, "Egypt's Defense Policy", in Stephanie Neumann, ed., Defense Planning in Less-Industrialized States ( Lexington: D. C. Heath and Co., 1984), p. 150.
3.
Dekmejian, "Egypt and Turkey", p. 33.
4.
Aliezer Beeri, Army Officers in Arab Society and Politics ( New York: Praeger, 1970), pp. 28-29; Shahrough Akhavi, "Egypt's Neo-Patrimonial Elite", in Frank Tachau , ed., Political Elites and Political Development in the Middle East ( Cambridge: Schenkman, 1975), pp. 85-89; Richard H. Dekmejian, Egypt under Nasir ( Albany: State University of New York, 1971), pp. 172-74; and Anwar Abd al-Malik, Misr Mujtama' Jadid Yabnih al-'Askariyun (Egypt a new society being built by the military) ( Beirut: Dar al-Tali'ah, 1964).
5.
See Ahmad Hamrush, Misr wa al-'Askariyun (Egypt and the Military) ( Cairo: Maktabat Madbuli, 1983), chapter 5; and Robert Springborg, "Patterns of Association in the Egyptian Political Elite",in George Lenczowski, ed., Political Elites in the Middle East ( Washington, D.C.: American Enterprise Institute, 1975), p. 93.
6.
Gamal Abdel Nasser, Egypt's Liberation: The Philosophy of the Revolution ( Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs Press, 1955), p. 23; P. J. Vatikiotis, Nasser and His Generation ( London: Croom Helm, 1978), chapter 5; and Ibrahim Karawan, "Egypt's Defense Policy: Who Makes What? How? and When?" (paper presented to the Columbia University Workshop on Defense Policy-making in Less-Industrialized States, New York City, April 16, 1982).
7.
See Morris Janowitz, Military Institutions and Coercion in the Developing Nations ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1977).
8.
See P. J. Vatikiotis, Nasser and His Generation, chapters 3-4.
9.
See Joel Migdal, Strong Societies and Weak States (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988), chapter 5.
10.
Tariq al-Bishri, al-Dimuqratiyah wa Nizam 23 Yulyu (Democracy and the Regime of 23rd of July) ( Cairo: Dar al-Hillal, 1991), chapter 3.
11.
Ali Eddin Hillal, al-Nizam al-Siyasi al-Masri wa Tahadeyat al-Thamaninat (The Egyptian political system and the challenges of the 1980s) ( Cairo: Maktabat Nahdat al- Sharq, 1986), p. 18.

-118-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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