Ahmad Fakhr, "al-Ahdaf al-lstratijiyah li al-'Askariyah al-Misriyah
(Strategic objectives of the Egyptian military)", al-Jumhuriyah, 20 January 1985. See also General
Ibrahim Shakib, Shukran Ayuha al-Sadaha (Thank You, Gentlemen). al-
Ahali, 7 November 1984.
See statement of leftist party on this under the title "al-Dimuqratiyahfi Khatar
(Endangered democracy)", al-Ahali, 13 August 1986.
.See Midhat al-Zahid critical article in "al-Ahali", 6 August 1986. One of AbuGhazallah's leftist critics referred to him as the "bright star," which was the name given
to Egyptian-American joint exercises; see Sa'id Isma'il Ali, "Hadha al-Najm al-Sati
(This bright star)", al-Ahali, 8 October 1986.
Mahmoud Fawzi, Abu-Ghazallah wa Asrar al-Iqulah (The secrets of firing Abu-
Ghazallah) ( Cairo, al-Jidawi Publishing, 1993), pp. 152-60.
See lengthy interviews in prison with Colonel al-Zumur in Mahmud Fawzi, 'Abbud al-Zumur... Kayf Ightalna al-Sadat?! (How we assassinated Sadat?!)
, ( Beirut: Hatiah, 1993), pp. 45
-47. Al-Zumur revealed that Islamist groups value having
members with military background because they enhance the performance of major organizational and fighting tasks, as well as systematize and rationalize decision making.
See Ibid., 85-86
Interview with Tal'at Qaslm of the Islamic group in al-Ahali, 9 February 1994,
p. 3; and statements of a leader of "the vanguards of Islamic conquest" in al-Ahali, 8
September 1993, p. 4.
Caryle Murphy, "Egypt: An Uneasy Portent of Change", Current History 93, no. 580 ( February 1994): 78-82.
al-Mussawr, 17 December 1993, pp. 16-19.
See al-Mussawar, 8 January 1993, pp. 82-83, and 23 July 1993, pp. 22-23.
al-Ahram, 7 February 1994, p. 3. A month earlier, the Minister of Defense, Field
Marshal Hussein Tantawi, has testified before the National Security committee in the
Parliament about the need for coordinating the efforts of all ministries, including his
own, to counter the escalation of violence. One influential writer stressed that a role for
the army against violent Islamist groups would be in accordance with its constitutional
responsibilities and that the coordination between the military and security agencies has
to become more comprehensive. Ahmad Hamrush, "Madha Sayaf'al al-Jaysh Amam allrhab? (What will the army do against terrorism?)", Roz-al-Youssef, 3 January 1994;
and "al-Jaysh... Limadha Yatasada lil Irhab (The army... Why should it confront
Roz-al-Youssef, 24 January 1994, p. 28.
Beattie Kirk. "Egypt: Thirty-five Years of Praetorian Politics". In
Constantine P. Danopoulos
, ed., Military Disengagement from Politics. London: Routledge, 1988.
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Beeri Eliezer. Army Officers in Arab Society and Politics. New York: Praeger, 1970.
Dekmejian R. Hrair. Egypt under Sasir: A Study of Political Dynamics. Albany: State
University of New York Press, 1971.
Perlmutter Amos. Egypt: The Praetorian State. New Brunswick: Transaction Books, 1974.
Springborg Robert. Mubarak's Egypt: Fragmentation of the Political Order. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1989.