The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

GERMANY

Wilfried von Bredow

The development of civil-military relations in Germany and its earlier political entities ( Prussia, for example) has been studied at length by historians and social scientists. Until 1945, most German authors showed principally a positive bias toward the military and its role in society and the political process. After 1945, German authors mostly joined the ranks of non-German observers of the German military, writing very critical studies about the origins, features, and consequences of German militarism.

In 1945, demilitarized Germany, divided into two states in antagonistic camps, the East-West conflict, was confronted with the need to rearm; both governments, in Bonn and East Berlin, were determined to build up basically new armed forces with fundamentally changed military-political traditions and legitimacies. This was difficult, but probably successful. One astounding empirical illustration for this hypothesis is the comparative ease with which the armed forces in Germany were completely restructured after the unification of Germany in October 1990.

This chapter concentrates on the armed forces in the Federal Republic of Germany, first describing past ordeals that were translated into West Germany's rearmament. The relations between the armed forces and the civil society were shaped to guarantee political control of the armed forces by democratic institutions, a concept described next. A discussion follows of the problems of forceful social integration of the armed forces into the civil society, with, at the end, a discussion of the changing role of Germany in the international system, in light of internal developments in civil-military relations.


CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS IN GERMANY UNTIL 1945

In his Principles of Sociology ( 1886) Herbert Spencer distinguishes between a "militant type of society," in which "all men fit for fighting act in concert

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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