The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

pushed to speed competition to set new records in economic production, keeping a wartime spirit with dedication and sacrifice.

Fourth, the military leaders have been actively involved in policymaking, not only for military policies but also for nonmilitary domestic and foreign policies. However, it should be noted that it is extremely difficult to know exactly how policy decisions are made in a secretive country like North Korea. As described previously, the top military leaders have been ranked officially and in reality right next to Kim Il-sung in the KWP hierarchy since 1945. With all available data analysis, it is clear that the military has been more influential in constituent policies that are primarily concerned with the internal distribution of power among government institutions.32 Even though the military influence in policy- making has been limited by Kim Il-sung, it appears that the military and Kim have built a very close partnership.

Finally, the military has served the Kim Il-sung regime as a safeguard against any anti-Kim Il-sung groups. The armed forces became personalized serving Kim Il-sung, not the state. This implies that the unity within the military is likely to weaken now that Kim Il-sung has passed from the scene. During the leadership transition in such an authoritarian country as North Korea, the military's support will be crucial for the peaceful leadership succession. But the functions of the military described above will gradually diminish during the post-Kim Il-sung era.


NOTES
1.
See Gregory F. T. Winn, "North Korea: A Garrison State", in Edward A. Olsen and Steven Jurika, eds., The Armed Forces in Contemporary Asian Societies ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1986), p. 105.
2.
See Dae-Sook Suh, The Korean Communist Movement, 1918-1948 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967), pp. 7-8.
3.
See Jae-Hwa Lee, The Korean Modern History of Independence ( Seoul: Baek San, 1988), p. 324-29. See also Dae-Sook Suh, Korean Communist, pp. 281-87.
4.
Summarized from Ralph N. Clough, Embattled Korea: The Rivalry for International Support ( Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1987), pp. 1-2. Almost nothing is reliable about Kim Il-Sung's activities. For detailed reference, see Chong-Sik Lee, "Kim Il-Sung of North Korea", Asian Survey 7, no. 6 ( June 1967): 374-75.
5.
See hBruce Cumings, "Introduction", in Bruce Cumings, ed., Child of Conflict: The Korean-American Relationship, 1943-1953 ( Seattle: University of Washington Pres1, 1983), p. 39.
6.
See Robert A. Scalapino and Chong-Sik Lee, Communism in Korea, Part I ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972), p. 383.
7.
The KWP was unified in June 1949. The North Korean Workers' Party (NKWA) was officially formed on 30 August 1946. The NKWA absorbed the South Korean Workers' Party, led by Park Hon-yong, in June 1949.
8.
See Joungwan A. Kim, Divided Korea: The Politics of Development, 1945-1972 ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975), p. 33.

-335-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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