The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook

By Constantine P. Danopoulos; Cynthia Watson | Go to book overview

ence of policy weighs as heavily as does the power of American military forces.22 Especially in nuclear crisis management, presidents will want to maintain strict control over military operations in order to avoid inadvertent escalation.23


NOTES

The author is grateful to Professor Sam C. Sarkesian for helpful comments on an earlier draft of this study. He bears no responsibility for its contents.

1.
Seminal studies of U.S. civil-military relations include Samuel P. Huntington, The Soldier and the State ( Cambridge: Belknap Press, Harvard University Press, 1957); Huntington, The Common Defense ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1961); Morris Janowitz , The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait ( New York: Free Press, 1961); and Russell F. Weigley, Towards an American Army: Military Thought from Washington to Marshall ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1962).
2.
On U.S. security requirements and responses for the pre-Cold War or "geopolitical era," see Robert J. Art, "A Defensible Defense: America's Grand Strategy after the Cold War", International Security, no. 4 (Spring 1991): 5-53.
3.
For example, Cold War conditions posed new problems of interservice command and control. This is well treated in historical perspective by C. Kenneth Allard, Command, Control and the Common Defense ( New Haven: Yale University Press, 1990).
4.
An expert analysis of U.S. military professionalism in the Cold War years is provided in Sam C. Sarkesian, Beyond the Battlefield: The New Military Profession ( New York: Pergamon Press, 1981).
5.
These developments can be traced in John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941-1947 ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1972), esp. pp. 282-352; and Adam Ulam, The Rivals: America and Russia since World War II ( New York: Viking Press, 1971).
6.
John Lewis Gaddis, The Long Peace: Inquiries into the History of the Cold War ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 114.
7.
Robert Jervis, The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution ( Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989); and Lawrence Freedman, The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy ( New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981).
8.
This case is argued in Harry T. Summers, On Strategy: A Critical Analysis of the Vietnam War ( New York: Dell Publishers, 1982), chapter 1.
9.
For an account from the perspective of McNamara's staff, see Alain C. Enthoven and K. Wayne Smith, How Much Is Enough? Shaping the Defense Program, 1961-1969 ( New York: Harper and Row, 1971), esp. pp. 117-64. See also William W. Kaufmann, The McNamara Strategy ( New York: Harper and Row, 1964).
10.
Evolution of the NSC is discussed in John Prados, The Keepers of the Keys: A History of the National Security Council from Truman to Bush ( New York: William Morrow and Co., 1991).
11.
For assessments of Goldwater-Nichols, see Robert J. Art, Strategy and Management in the Post-Cold War Pentagon ( Carlisle, Penn.: U.S. Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 1992), and Rep. Les Aspin, Chairman, and Rep. William Dickenson, U.S. Congress, House Committee on Armed Services, Defense for a New Era: Lessons of the Persian Gulf War ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992).

-437-

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The Political Role of the Military: An International Handbook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Argentina 1
  • Notes 16
  • References 17
  • Brazil 19
  • Notes 34
  • References 41
  • Canada 42
  • Notes 53
  • References 54
  • China 55
  • Notes 67
  • References 70
  • Cuba 71
  • Notes 84
  • References 86
  • Denmark 88
  • Notes 100
  • References 105
  • Egypt 107
  • Notes 118
  • References 121
  • France 122
  • References 141
  • Germany 143
  • Notes 152
  • References 153
  • Greece 154
  • Notes 167
  • References 168
  • India 169
  • Notes 186
  • References 188
  • Indonesia 189
  • Notes 205
  • References 206
  • Iran 207
  • Israel 223
  • Notes 233
  • References 234
  • Japan 235
  • Notes 252
  • References 255
  • Kenya 256
  • Notes 269
  • References 270
  • Mexico 271
  • Notes 281
  • References 282
  • Netherlands 283
  • Notes 295
  • References 297
  • Nigeria 299
  • Notes 320
  • References 322
  • North Korea 323
  • Notes 335
  • References 337
  • Peru 338
  • Notes 355
  • References 360
  • Poland 361
  • Notes 371
  • References 373
  • Republic of South Africa 374
  • Notes 387
  • References 390
  • Russia and the Former Soviet Union 391
  • Notes 401
  • References 403
  • United Kingdom 404
  • Notes 415
  • United States 420
  • Notes 437
  • References 439
  • Zaire 440
  • Notes 456
  • References 458
  • Index 459
  • CONTRIBUTORS 515
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