International lawyers, professors, and movements have worked for
their adoption. Though often ignored and violated by state authority,
their advocates have grown in number and power. Today, the human
rights movement has spread to all parts of the world, from the Mothers of the Plaza, the Black Sash, to the Palestinian Nationalists, the
African National Congress and the Philippine National Peasants'
Union (NPU). The nonviolent resistance movements in the super-
power nations against the nuclear arms race and the concentration
camps are also part of this solidarity.
In the final analysis, the global human rights movement in Africa
can only be built by Africans themselves as they come to recognize
the nature of that crisis and find ways of building a third-generation
leadership which reflects this new thinking. We outside of Africa
should give greater attention to the new ways Africans have found
to understand and express their concept of human rights claims.
Hassan Faroq discusses this third generation as found in the sequence of liberty, equality, and fraternity from the French Revolution to the
African and Third World. See "Solidarity Rights: Progressive Evolution of
International Human Rights Law," Human Rights Annual 1 ( 1983), pp. 71- 74.
Richard Falk terms this the populist view of human rights and cites
the Algiers Declaration of Rights in Human Rights and State Sovereignty
( New York: Holmes and Meier Press, 1981), pp. 51-53.
Faroq, "Solidarity Rights," p. 52.
Franz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth ( New York: Grove Press, 1965), pp. 36-37.
Gustavo Gutierrez, A Theology of Liberation ( Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis
Books, 1973), p. 88.
Colin Morris, The Unyoung, the Unpoor, and Uncolored ( London: Zed Press, 1962).
Claude Ake, A Political Economy of Africa ( London: Longman Group, 1987).
Amilcar Cabral, "Return to the Source: Selected Speeches," ed. Africa
Information Service. ( New York: Monthly Review Press, 1973), pp. 54-55.
Adebayo Adedeji and
Timothy Shaw, eds., Economic Crisis in Africa:
African Perspectives on Development Problems and Potential ( Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 1985), pp. 9-10.
Nzongola Ntalaja and
Ilunga Kabondo, eds., The Crisis in Zaire:
Myths and Realities ( Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press, 1986), p. 5.
George W. Shepherd Jr., The Trampled Grass: Tributary States and
Self-Reliance in the Indian Ocean Zone of Peace ( New York: Praeger, 1987),
Osita C. Eze, Human Rights in Africa: Some Selected Problems ( La