the exploitative systems in place and show up the contradictions between what is postulated and actual reality. In the end these limited rights serve primarily to moderate intraruling class conflicts.
The record of violations of human rights in Africa remains very discouraging. Some progress might have been made since independence, but the increasing impoverishment of the African peoples, together with the growing reach of imperialism in the African countries with the active collaboration of the local ruling classes which has increasingly undermined the capacity of these classes to take the initiative and to make autonomous decisions in matters of national development, leaves little room for consolation. If the African masses are to gain from the national and world movements in the field of human rights they must be at the center of development. They must participate in that process on the basis of self-reliance. They must also be in the forefront of national liberation which can only be achieved on the basis of anti-imperialist struggle. In effect, what is needed is a socialist transformation of African countries which alone will ensure that the majority decree laws are protective and promotional of their human rights and not violative of them. This, in our view, is the central problem of human rights protection or violation.