"Conflict Education": Analysis and Critique of a New Pedagogical Slogan
The language used by educators and educational theorists is always influenced by currently fashionable ideological and political orientations. We need only recall the events of the last few decades. Under the German National Socialist dictatorship ( 1933-45), German educators were expected to teach values such as those of the "Volksgemeinschaft" or national community, "obedience," "loyalty" and "self-sacrifice." Then, during the first twenty years of democratic reconstruction after 1945, emphasis was placed on education for "responsibility" and "partnership," thus on attitudes which further cooperation in a free and democratic society.
After West Germans had accustomed themselves to their new affluence, culturally critical intellectuals began around 1965 to have doubts about the existing societal order and to foment dissatisfaction with it. The New Left protest movement triggered an upsurge of radical societal and cultural critique which penetrated deep into so- called bourgeois society, into all political parties and even into the churches. This led to a change of consciousness with the result that subsequently the negative aspects of modern life situations and interpersonal relationships have been one-sidedly overemphasized. The new guiding ideas are "critique," "freedom from dominance," "emancipation," "ability for conflict." The societal image of the rebuilding phase after the Second World