Burger Court sent a loud and clear message: the federal courts will gladly entertain a defendant's request to dismiss a case on standing grounds. The Court practically invited such requests, and those being sued responded accordingly. Individuals seeking to challenge the constitutionality of official conduct can be reasonably certain that their opponents will be ready to assert the standing argument. Even if these individuals are found to have standing to sue, they will have spent large amounts on litigation of this preliminary matter. The fight over the standing issue may also take years to resolve, and during that period the individuals may be subjected to the deprivation of constitutional rights. Such individuals may well conclude that bypassing the federal courts completely is both cheaper and faster. They can bring their cases in state courts that are not bound by the same standing rules used in federal court.75 As a result, whether directly or indirectly, the Burger Court's restrictive standing requirements close the federal courts to individuals who believe their constitutional rights are being denied by public officials.