five years, and that operated in continual crisis amid mounting losses from AIDS, those advances are a proud legacy.
|•||• PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS, such as pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), toxoplasma gondii encephalitis, cryptosporidium parvum and microsporidium colitis, isospora belli, and others;|
|•||• BACTERIAL INFECTIONS, such as mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), neurosyphilis, and many infections of the gastrointestinal system;|
|•||• VIRAL INFECTIONS, such as herpes simplex, herpes zoster (shingles), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and colitis, JV-virus-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML, a rare brain disorder), and papilloma-virus--associated cervical and anal cancers;|
|•||• FUNGAL INFECTIONS, such as meningitis caused by cryptococcus neoformans, histoplasma capsulatum, and disseminated candida (thrush);|
|•||• OPPORTUNISTIC CANCERS, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, the unchecked proliferation of new blood vessels, B-cell lymphomas, and cervical and anal cancers.|
The current AIDS definition is not regarded as definitive. Because the initial surveillance of AIDS was mainly conducted upon gay men, the definition reflects just a portion of the immune deficiencies associated with HIV infection. Many conditions more common in women, injecting drug users, and people of color are omitted from the CDC case definition.
|•||• Phase I trials are the first studies done on humans. A small number of people (generally under 100) are enrolled and closely monitored. These trials look at pharmacokinetics, or how the drug is metabolized in the body; at safety and tolerance, or what side effects are associated with the drug; at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), to see when unacceptable side effects occur; and at activity, or preliminary evidence for efficacy against the condition for which the drug is being studied.|