require ideological solutions. However, ideological solutions may not be available, partly because the ideological excesses from 1958 to 1978 created an aversion among the peasantry to ideological solutions.
Power is not shared through institutional arrangement in China, and power wielding is largely subject to individual Party and government officials' consciences. They are not exempt from materialistic appeals in an environment of "money worship." Guanxi politics, based on interpersonal relations and connections and unconstrained by institutional checks, is enabling power holders to pursue personal gain at the expense of the state and peasantry and to evade responsibility under the current framework of "socialism with competitive capitalism." How did the CCP respond to the peasant challenge? Two responses to the peasant challenge by the CCP are discussed in the next two chapters: village elections in chapter 6 and the establishment of Deng Xiaoping Theory in chapter 7.