INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS' EXPERTS' VIEWS
The changes in the political economy of Africa in the 1980s have called for many studies on the relationship between Africa and the international system, especially multilateral agencies.
Michel Doo Kingu逎9's "Prospects for Africa's Economic Recovery and Development" begins by identifying seven challenges facing Africa: The current financial crisis; the ecological challenge whereby drought and desertification are threatening the environment; the technological challenge; the challenge of African unity; the challenge of Africa's satisfactory integration into the world economy; and the political challenge in terms of the need for good leadership.
Doo Kingué calls for the Marshall Plan for Africa. This echoes another such call which was made earlier in a special report prepared by the United Nations Children's Fund (MCEF), Within Human Reach: A Future for Africa's Children, the Prospects for an Improved Future of Africa. According to Doo Kingué, the solution to Africa's problem lies in national and collective selfreliance. This is also resultant from the resolve of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) heads of state, expressed in the Lagos Plan of Action in 1980. One is enabled to gauge the extent to which slow economic growth and the shortterm costs of reform and adjustment efforts are serious social and political difficulties, by studying the midterm evaluation (in 1989), the OAU's Africa's Priority Programme for Economic Recovery, 1985, which was a response to the deepening crisis. This study was turned into the United Nations Programme of Action for African Economic Recovery and Development, 1986-1990, (UNPAAERD).
Doo Kingué calls for quick and imaginative measures needed to create an external environment that is supportive of Africa's efforts. At the center of these measures should be the Marshall Plan designed for Africa, in which the United States should play a special role of aid provider.