Franklin Roosevelt and the Origins of the Canadian-American Security Alliance, 1933-1945: Necessary, but Not Necessary Enough

By Galen Roger Perras | Go to book overview

MAB issue when Canada had received nearly all that it had asked for is less easy to accept. Pope blamed that defeat on Howe's refusal to allow any change to the cozy relationship he had with the Americans, a charge supported by Wrong. 88 Moffat had a more picturesque analogy. Likening the entire process to watching a Roman legion march up a hill, only to see that formation turn on its heels to go back down before it had reached the summit, Moffat thought the result had been a "general realization here that Canada's role in asking for something and then declining it, when to a large degree it was offered, has not been particularly heroic." 89 Perhaps had King pushed Roosevelt harder to accept or at least acknowledge the Canadian position, the results might have more closely resembled those the prime minister had gained at Hyde Park in April 1941. But because King, in the opinion of Australian politician Robert Menzies, was "no war leader" as well as "a politician who possibly prefers to lead from behind," 90 he obviously had not wished to risk his special relationship with the president over the MAB. Caution, not heroism, always was King's watchword.


NOTES
1.
Stark to Knox, 12 November 1940, FDRL, Roosevelt PSF, file Navy Department: Plan Dog.
2.
Colonel Jonathan W. Anderson to Marshall, "National Policy of the United States," 13 November 1940, NARA, RG165, Entry 281, file WPD 4175-15; "Marshall to Stark, Tentative Draft, Navy Basic War Plan--Rainbow No. 3, 29 November 1940", in Bland, The Papers of George Catlett Marshall, Volume 2, 360-61; and "Marshall to Stark, Joint Basic War Plans, Rainbow Nos. 3 and 5, 2 December 1940", Ibid., 362.
3.
Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 252-58.
4.
Lend-Leases origins are discussed in Warren Kimball, "The Most Unsordid Act" Lend-Lease, 1939-1941 ( Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1969).
5.
Marshall to Gerow, "White House Conference of Thursday, January 16, 1941," 17 January 1941, NARA, RG165, Entry 281, file WPD 4175-18.
6.
W. David McIntyre, The Rise and Fall of the Singapore Naval Base, 1919-1942 ( London: Macmillan, 1979), 182.
7.
"Statement by the Chief of Naval Operations and the Chief of Staff," 27 January 1941, NARA, RG165, Entry 281, file WPD 4202-1; Embick, Miles, Gerow, and McNarney to Marshall, "Dispatch of United States Forces to Singapore," 12 February 1941, Ibid; and Halifax to the Four Dominion High Commissioners, 14 February 1941, PRO, F0371/27887.
8.
Churchill minute, 17 February 1941, PRO, Admiralty Records, ADMI16/4877; and ABC-1 report, "United States--British Staff Conversations," 27 March 1941, PRO, CAB122/1582.
9.
King diary, 6 January 1941, NAC; and Malcolm Macdonald to Dominions Office, March 1941, PRO, Prime Ministers Papers, PREM4/44/10.
10.
Paul Marsden, "The Costs of No Commitments: Canadian Economic Planning for War," in Hillmer et al., A Country of limitations, 199-200.
11.
J. L. Granatstein, "Free Trade between Canada and the United States: The Issue That Will Not Go Away," in Denis Stairs and Gilbert R. Winham, eds., The Politics of Canada's Relationship with the United States ( Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1985), 34-35.
12.
Skelton to King, "Re Defence Expenditures," 11 October 1940, NAC, King Memoranda and Notes, reel H1483, C173453-54.

-109-

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