GARRITY, W. ARTHUR, JR. (born June 20, 1920, Worcester, Massachusetts). W. Arthur Garrity served as a federal District Court* judge from 1966 in the Boston district and was responsible for the remedy in the Boston school desegregation* case. Garrity graduated from Holy Cross College in 1941 and received his law degree from Harvard University in 1946. He served as a U.S. Attorney from 1961 to 1966. Judge Garrity became the symbol of overzealous federal judges to the opponents of busing* in Boston. He found that the Boston public schools were unconstitutionally segregated in 1974 in the Morgan v. Hennigan* case. The Boston School Committee refused to be part of the remedy phase* of the desegregation* process, and Garrity "took over" the Boston School District, appointed an administration of his choosing, and played a strong role in directing its policies.
Works about: Who's Who in America, 1997; D. Garth Taylor, Public Opinion and Collective Action: The Boston School Desegregation Conflict ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986); Orfield, Must We Bus? ( 1978).
GEBHART V. BELTON. See Belton v. Gebhart.
GEIER V. UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, 597 F.2d 1056 (6th Cir. 1979). Decision of the U.S. Court of Appeals* for the Sixth Circuit that ordered the merger of two postsecondary institutions of the state of Tennessee, concluding that the open-admissions* policy of the state was not sufficient to dismantle the state's dual system* of higher education. In 1968 the expansion of the University of Tennessee at Nashville (UT-N), a traditionally all-white university planning