Historical Dictionary of School Segregation and Desegregation: The American Experience

By Jeffrey A. Raffel | Go to book overview

J

JIM CROW . The segregation* of whites and blacks required or permitted by state and local authorities in restaurants, theaters, hotels, drinking fountains, neighborhoods and housing, beaches and swimming pools, churches, buses, streetcars, taxicabs, trains, waiting rooms, comfort stations, barbershops, ticket windows, baseball teams, libraries, state colleges and universities, and other facilities. Such segregation was given legal sanction by the U.S. Supreme Court* in the Plessy v. Ferguson* decision in 1896. The segregation was imposed by authorities or permitted private individuals and groups to segregate facilities by race. This era began after the decade of Reconstruction from 1865 to 1877 with the resolution of the Tilden-Hayes election conflict and the pullout of federal troops from the South* agreed to in the Compromise of 1877.* Despite the legal requirement of separate but equal,* facilities were separate but rarely equal. Laws prohibiting interracial marriage were also passed during this period. By 1885 all the former Confederate states had passed laws to segregate blacks from whites. Segregation was enforced legally and through other means such as the Ku Klux Klan's* violent actions.

The slang term " Jim Crow" comes from a minstrel song by Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice, "Wheel About and Turn About and Jump, Jim Crow". The song was popular about 1835 and was related to the black color of a crow. A dance or jig was associated with this term. Rice, later billed as Jim Crow, appeared in blackface and danced around the stage ("jumped Jim Crow") in a manner denigrating blacks, like the laws named after the song. Around 1840 the segregated car on the Boston Railroad was known as the "Jim Crow."

Black seamstress Rosa Parks challenged Jim Crow by refusing to give up her

-133-

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Historical Dictionary of School Segregation and Desegregation: The American Experience
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xiii
  • Chronology xxiii
  • A 1
  • B 18
  • C 46
  • D 73
  • E 90
  • F 104
  • G 111
  • H 116
  • I 128
  • J 133
  • K 137
  • L 144
  • M 149
  • N 176
  • O 188
  • P 195
  • R 205
  • S 223
  • T 252
  • U 256
  • V 268
  • W 270
  • Y 285
  • Bibliographical Essay 287
  • General Bibliography 293
  • Geographical Bibliography 303
  • Index 317
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