PAIRING. A common school desegregation* technique of combining two schools, one white and one minority, so that one school then serves all students in the first subset of grades and the other school serves all students in the second subset of grades. For example, if one school serves all white pupils from kindergarten to sixth grade and another serves black students in the same grades, under pairing pupils are reassigned so that all kindergartners through third graders attend the first school and all fourth through sixth graders attend the second school. Pairing originated in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1948, where two Princeton elementary schools were paired and students were assigned to grades K-5 in one school and 6-8 in the other school. Pairing, therefore, is also referred to as the Princeton Plan. Pairing is differentiated from clustering,* where more than two schools are brought together.
References: Dejnozka and Kapel, American Educators' Encyclopedia ( 1991), 447; Hughes, Gordon, and Hillman, Desegregating America's Schools ( 1980); James M. Laing , Alternative Methods, Practices, and Concepts for School Desegregation: A Review of the Literature and Annotated Bibliography ( Pleasant Hills, CA: Contra Costa County Department of Education, 1969), ERIC ED041056; Greenberg, Race Relations and American Law ( 1959).
PARKER, JOHN JOHNSTON (born November 20, 1885, Monroe, North Carolina-died March 17, 1958, Washington, D.C.). Key judge on the Fourth Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals* during the aftermath and interpretation of the 1954 and 1955 Brown* decisions whose nomination to the U.S. Supreme Court* by President Herbert Hoover was rejected by the Senate in 1930. Parker was