Historical Dictionary of School Segregation and Desegregation: The American Experience

By Jeffrey A. Raffel | Go to book overview

R

RACE RELATIONS. The interactions among different racial groups, which may be described as conflictual or harmonious, competitive or cooperative, or dominant or subordinate, or may involve integration* or separation. Race relations are affected by discrimination,* prejudice,* and racism.*

According to Marger ( 1991), three periods of black-white relations have existed in the United States: slavery, the Jim Crow* era of segregation,* and the contemporary era. To rebut the attacks of abolitionists on slavery from 1830 to 1860, southern slaveholders developed the ideology of racism, that blacks were innately and permanently inferior to whites. While many whites may have previously held a negative view of blacks, such attitudes were generally based on a view that negative characteristics were not innate but rather the result of cultural factors. Segregation during the Jim Crow era reflected the racist ideology of white superiority and black inferiority and was a reaction to the abolishment of slavery, a shift in power and resources to blacks, and the end of paternalism and the beginning of competition between blacks and whites. The Compromise of 1877,* which led to the withdrawal of federal troops from the South,* marked another turning point in race relations. Despite the U.S. Supreme Court's* conclusion in Plessy v. Ferguson* in 1896 that segregation should not necessarily be viewed as an indictment of either race, white efforts to segregate blacks clearly grew out of a racist ideology of superiority. While many blacks moved north to compete with whites for jobs in the increasingly industrialized cities of the North, segregation of schools, housing, transportation, and a vast array of public and private facilities increased throughout the South. World War II, with the nation's fight against a racist Germany and the return of black as well as

-205-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Note: primary sources have slightly different requirements for citation. Please see these guidelines for more information.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Historical Dictionary of School Segregation and Desegregation: The American Experience
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Introduction xiii
  • Chronology xxiii
  • A 1
  • B 18
  • C 46
  • D 73
  • E 90
  • F 104
  • G 111
  • H 116
  • I 128
  • J 133
  • K 137
  • L 144
  • M 149
  • N 176
  • O 188
  • P 195
  • R 205
  • S 223
  • T 252
  • U 256
  • V 268
  • W 270
  • Y 285
  • Bibliographical Essay 287
  • General Bibliography 293
  • Geographical Bibliography 303
  • Index 317
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
Items saved from this book
  • Bookmarks
  • Highlights & Notes
  • Citations
/ 345

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA 8, MLA 7, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Search by... Author
    Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.