SATELLITE ZONING. School desegregation* technique used in mandatory plans* in which schools are clustered but school attendance areas are not contiguous. This technique is used where school desegregation is the objective, where there are large black and white residential areas, and where the pairing* or clustering* only of adjacent schools will not achieve an appropriate racial mix. In satellite zoning an area with one type of racial mix is clustered with a noncontiguous area of a different racial mix. Unlike the pairing or clustering of nonadjacent school attendance areas, in satellite zoning no grade change is involved. This is also called pocket, island, or skip zoning and is used in plans involving busing.* Among the plans that involved satellite zoning are Mobile, Alabama; Riverside, California; Wilmington -- New Castle County, Delaware; Boston; Pittsburgh; and Roanoke, Virginia.
References: Armor, Forced Justice ( 1995); Rossell, "The Convergence of Black and White Attitudes on School Desegregation Issues during the Four Decade Evolution of the Plans" ( January 1995); Rossell, "The Classification of School Desegregation Remedies" ( January 12, 1992).
SCHOOL DECENTRALIZATION.SeeCommunity Control.
SCHOOL DESEGREGATION. The redistribution of pupils in schools leading to a greater balance of pupils by race. School desegregation can occur because of "natural" forces, voluntary actions of school and public officials involving voluntary or mandatory reassignment of students, or mandatory actions ordered by the courts or governmental bodies involving voluntary or mandatory reas-