any case, to be successful, the Birmingham demonstrations needed to involve masses of blacks. But with that involvement, and the brutality with which "Bull" Connor responded, black anger could not be controlled. It is an often ignored but indubitable truth that the first urban riot was in Birmingham. The atmosphere among blacks within the nation was profoundly altered by the Birmingham demonstration. Blacks everywhere were more militant and more angry. The next summer saw the first wave of the recognized black riots before, during, and after the democratic convention. Soon, black nationalism, black power, and black rioting were widespread. All of these emerged organically from the Civils Rights Movement. No effort to understand them can ignore either the popular upheavals or the efforts of black organizations to guide, and in some cases to create, those upheavals.