Popular Images of American Presidents

By William C. Spragens | Go to book overview

of scholarly tarnish can wait and hope for the cycles of historical revisionism to rescue them.


NOTES
1.
Michael B. Grossman and Martha J. Kumar, Portraying the President ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1981).
2.
Abner Falk suggests in "Aspects of Political Psychobiography," Political Psychology, 6, no. 4 ( December 1985): 605-619:

Some politicians are also artists or writers, like Disraeli; and, as the Georges' study of Wilson ( George and George, 1966) and subsequent psychobiographies culminating in Volkan and Itzkowitz's ( 1984) monumental study of Kemal Ataturk have shown, political action can be deeply influenced and determined by unconscious conflict or fantasy as can a literary creation. Political actions, however, must in some way accord with reality. If they cease to do so, the political leader no longer functions in his role.

Falk cites Hitler's aberrations as the products of a diseased mind. Although the univariate analysis of Lloyd de Mause in Reagan's America ( New York: Creative Roots Publishers, 1984) seeks to show the impact of fantasy on the Reagan presidency, the impact of Senate Republican leaders on economic policy, as in 1982 and 1987, and the advice that led to the recognition of the Corazon Aquino regime in the Philippines indicate that there are limits to this view.

3.
James Stimson, To Be a Politician ( New York: Pocket Books, 1959); John Mueller, War, Presidents and Public Opinion ( New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1973), and "Presidential Popularity from Truman to Johnson," in American Political Science Review, 64 ( 1970): 21, 22.
4.
Samuel Kernell, Peter W. Sperlich, and Aaron Wildavsky, "Public Support for Presidents," in Aaron Wildavsky, ed., Perspectives on the Presidency ( Boston: Little, Brown, 1975), pp. 1 48)-1 64).
5.
See Lester Milbrath et al., Political Participation ( Chicago: Rand McNally, 1977); Edward Muller and Thomas Jackson, "On the Meaning of Political Support," American Political Science Review, 71, no. 4 ( December 1977): 1561- 1595; and Richard Brody and Paul Sniderman, "From Life Space to Polling Place," British Journal of Political Science, 7 ( 1977): 337-360.
6.
Michael J. Robinson, Over the Wire and on TV CBS and UPI in Campaign '80 ( New York: Russell Sage, 1983). The dichotomy between "plebeian" and "patrician" presidents is not, of course, a complete accounting. Some presidents fit neither category, but must be classified as "Middle Americans," the most recent of which was Gerald R. Ford. The state of Ohio has produced more than its share of "Middle American" presidents, e.g., Rutherford B. Hayes, William McKinley, Warren G. Harding, and William Howard Taft, all of whom were comfortably middle class.

-606-

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Popular Images of American Presidents
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Copyright Acknowledgments v
  • Contents vii
  • Preface ix
  • Acknowledgments xv
  • 1 - George Washington 1
  • Annotated Bibliography 21
  • 2 - Thomas Jefferson 27
  • Bibliographic Essay 43
  • 3 - Andrew Jackson 47
  • Annotated Bibliography 66
  • 4 - Abraham Lincoln 67
  • Annotated Bibliography 100
  • 5 - Rutherford B. Hayes 105
  • Bibliographic Essay 130
  • 6 - Grover Cleveland 131
  • Annotated Bibliography 146
  • 7 - William Mckinley 147
  • Introduction 147
  • Notes 177
  • Bibliographic Essay 180
  • 8 - Theodore Roosevelt 185
  • Annotated Bibliography 208
  • 9 - William Howard Taft 211
  • Annotated Bibliography 237
  • 10 - Woodrow Wilson 239
  • Annotated Bibliography 260
  • 11 - Warren Gamaliel Harding 267
  • Annotated Bibliography 295
  • 12 - Calvin Coolidge 297
  • Annotated Bibliography 323
  • 13 - Herbert Hoover 325
  • Bibliographic Essay 344
  • 14 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt 347
  • Notes 379
  • Annotated Bibliography 383
  • 15 - Harry Truman 387
  • Bibliographic Essay 408
  • 16 - Dwight D. Eisenhower 411
  • Annotated Bibliography 433
  • 17 - John F. Kennedy 437
  • Annotated Bibliography 472
  • 18 - Lyndon B. Johnson 477
  • Annotated Bibliography 496
  • 19 - Richard M. Nixon 499
  • Summary 515
  • Notes 516
  • Bibliographic Essay 519
  • 20 - Gerald R. Ford 523
  • Notes 537
  • 21 - Jimmy Carter 539
  • Bibliographic Essay 559
  • 22 - Ronald Reagan 563
  • Afterword 580
  • Notes 580
  • Notes 582
  • 23 - Cycles in the Public Perception of Presidents 587
  • Notes 606
  • Selected Bibliography 607
  • Index 611
  • Contributors 621
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