Road to Rejection
Through the years Clara Barton directed the Red Cross and its operations she sometimes thought that only a war could cement the National Association into place in the hearts and minds of the American people. Then came the Spanish-American conflict which, in her theorizing, should have provided the requisite conditions for the final triumph of her organization. Instead the opposite occurred. Criticism of the conduct of the Red Cross in Cuba centered on Barton and on her methods. The road to rejection began in Cuba, and the journey along it would be long and painful arriving at the end with Clara's forced resignation in 1904. The wartime Red Cross carried with it the seeds of its own demise, the end of the association as Barton had shaped it and in some sense the destruction of Clara in her life's work if not in legend. She did not surrender easily, or willingly, or happily. The stone that was the foundation stone was rejected by the builders.
By the 1890s the managerial revolution in the American corporate world was well advanced. "The visible hand of management replaced the invisible hand of market mechanisms," in the words of Alfred D. Chandler. 1 Something akin to this change was taking place in other institutions, in the prominent universities, for example. It was no longer a matter of challenge and response, but of mapping out the direction that such institutions would take according to well-con-