In one of history's ironic twists, events in Mississippi triggered a second Reconstruction. The state once again became the subject of intense Northern scrutiny when three civil rights workers were murdered there in the summer of 1964. In the wake of that widely publicized "Mississippi summer," Congress passed the Voting Rights Act and sent federal marshals into Mississippi and other Southern states to register black voters. In the decades that followed, Mississippi and her sister Southern states at last began to redeem the promises the "redeemers" had broken a century earlier. And in early 1995, Mississippi finally ratified the Thirteenth Amendment--unanimously.
I think it would be politic for the Southern States to meet this issue with an acceptance at once. We must make the negro our friend, and we can do this if we will. Should we make him our enemy under the promptings of the Yankee, whose aim is to force us to recognize an equality, then our path lies through a way red with blood, and damp with tears. To let the negro approach the witness stand and the ballot box by no means implies his social equality. ( James Alcorn to Amelia Alcorn, 26 August 1865, Alcorn Papers, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Jackson, Mississippi)