No Easy Walk to Freedom: Reconstruction and the Ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment

By James E. Bond | Go to book overview

cepted the invitation to seal the fate of the Republican Party, sending it into "permanent eclipse." 102 The biggest losers were Alabama's black citizens. Prejudice, fraud, 103 and violence 104 sealed their fate; and they would not be heard from again until a tired Rosa Parks refused to move to the back of a Birmingham bus.


NOTES
1.
Sarah W. Wiggins, The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, 1865-1881 (University, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 1977), 7.
2.
Thomas B. Alexander, "Persistent Whiggery in Alabama and the Lower South, 1860-1867," Alabama Review 12 ( 1959): 35, 42. In spite of his Unionist sympathies, Smith twice represented Alabama in the Confederate Congress. From there he wrote his wife: "There is a sullen deadness here to the condition of the country. The men who inaugurated the war are unwilling to admit the possibility of a failure. And I really believe that the slaughter of the women and children of the entire South would not change their stubbornness." Russell Smith to his wife, 2 October 1862, William Russell Smith Papers, Library of Congress.

Smith did run that fall, finishing third.

3.
Walter L. Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama ( New York: Columbia University Press, 1905), 148, 342. See also Fleming, "The Peace Movement in Alabama during the Civil War," (parts 1 and 2), South Atlantic Quarterly ( April/July 1903): 114, 246.
4.
President Johnson appointed Lewis Parsons, a Whig who had opposed secession, provisional governor on 21 June 1865.
5.
A majority of the delegates to the constitutional convention that met in Montgomery during September 1865 had Whig or Unionist roots. Alexander, "Persistent Whiggery in Alabama and the Lower South,"46. The New York Times, 25 September 1865, commented that the Alabama convention was "generally composed of old Whigs, who originally were utterly opposed to the secession movement."
6.
The New York Times, 30 November 1866, also described the state legislature that convened on 20 November 1865, as "greatly national, not sectional" and predicted that it would rise above "party spirit and political prejudice." Both houses chose former Whigs as their presiding officers and elected Provisional Governor Lewis C. Parsons to the long-term U.S. Senate seat.
7.
The vote was twenty-seven to two in the Senate and sixty-nine to eight in the House. See Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama, 396-97. (In mid-December "chances were favorable for ratification"; in mid-January "it seemed almost sure to be ratified.")
8.
Selma Daily Messenger, 15 November 1866.
9.
Wiggins, The Scalawag in Alabama Politics, 14.
10.
Journal of the Session of 1866-7 of the Senate of the State of Alabama, Held in the City of Montgomery, Commencing on the Second Monday in November, 1866 ( Montgomery, Ala.: Reid & Screws, State Printers, 1867), 176.
11.
Montgomery Daily Mail, 5 October 1866.
12.
Selma Morning Times, 15 April 1866.
13.
See, e.g., Clarke County Journal, 10 May 1866.

-114-

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No Easy Walk to Freedom: Reconstruction and the Ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • 1 - The Remembered Past of the Fourteenth Amendment 1
  • Notes 10
  • 2 - Ratification in Tennessee 15
  • Notes 26
  • 3 - Ratification in Mississippi 33
  • Notes 47
  • 4 - Ratification in North Carolina 53
  • Notes 65
  • 5 - Ratification in Louisiana 75
  • Notes 95
  • 6 - Ratification in Alabama 101
  • Notes 114
  • 7 - Ratification in South Carolina 121
  • Notes 137
  • 8 - Ratification in Virginia 143
  • Notes 158
  • 9 - Ratification in Florida 169
  • Notes 183
  • 10 - Ratification in Arkansas 189
  • Notes 205
  • 11 - Ratification in Texas 211
  • Notes 225
  • 12 - Ratification in Georgia 231
  • Notes 245
  • 13 - The Imagined Future of the Fourteenth Amendment 251
  • Notes 272
  • Selected Bibliography 275
  • Index 289
  • About the Author 297
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