The Rules of the Game: Struggles in Black Recreation and Social Welfare Policy in South Africa

By Alan Gregor Cobley | Go to book overview

5
"A Proper Attitude of Mind": Socialization, Subordination, and the Rise of the Social Work Profession Among Blacks

INTRODUCTION

In the origins of social work among blacks, they were conceived as objects of provision rather than agents. The main reason for this was that, as with many other areas of social policy affecting blacks in the twentieth century, missionaries and white liberals played the most prominent early role. As increasingly large numbers of Africans moved into urban centers and settled there permanently, especially after the passage of the Native Land Act in 1913, missionaries moved with them. Among the first mission societies to respond to the new challenges of the urban industrial centers was the American Board Mission (ABM). Although its primary area of operation was among the Zulu in Natal during the nineteenth century, ABM missionaries had followed Zulu migrants to the gold mines of the Witwatersrand at an early stage. As early as 1893 the Reverend H. D. Goodenough had established a mission at Doornfontein in Johannesburg, and this was soon followed by missions elsewhere in and around the city, at Brickfields, Mayfair, Robinson Deep, and Elandsfontein. 1 In the decade after 1910 the ABM's presence on the Witwatersrand grew rapidly, and ultimately eclipsed its work in Natal. While the main thrust of the mission's work in Natal had been in education, in the slumyards and mine compounds around Johannesburg the pressing needs were material and social; under the guidance of the Reverend Frederick Brainard Bridgman and his wife, Clara, the ABM to the Witwatersrand began to develop an overtly social Gospel aimed at reclaiming and uplifting the growing urban black population from poverty, disease, and degradation in the slums. This work received a major impetus with the arrival on the Rand of the Reverend Ray E. Phillips in 1918.

Phillips had graduated from the Yale Divinity School in 1917 with the degree of bachelor in divinity. However, as he explained in his book, The Bantu in the City, while at Yale he had "specialised in courses preparing for social

-123-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Rules of the Game: Struggles in Black Recreation and Social Welfare Policy in South Africa
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 182

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.