imbalance of opposition pressures and competencies of the state (a manifestation of a "limited" or weak, dependent politico-economic system, or a disequilibrated political economy), and an intensification of the pressures on the state to maintain itself, or survive.
The intensification of group pressures creates the drive by the state to experiment with new strategies of survival. The state that is the most adaptive, ingenious, determined to survive searches the hardest for new ways to effectively contain pressures. That motivation to survive encourages the state to employ directly internal and external strategies--its own domestic coercive instruments and those obtained from outside (external allies). Survival requires astute and timely use of both covert and overt coercive action, co-optation of opponents, and other effective responses.
An important corollary is that states that are very good at implementing coercive strategies (getting things done) have an inherent coercive advantage. They are able to change and adapt faster, thereby forestalling escalation of political and economic discontent. Such cumulative state adaptive reflexes lead us back to our original premise that societal politico-economic pressures are ever changing and on the increase.
In sum, the post-independence African state is comprised of social institutions whose ideological basis is European, but juxtaposed against the pressures of African ideology. Such a curious melange of contrasting value systems is bound to produce power consolidation strategies that range from the use of persuasion to the perennial display of violence and terror by incumbent regimes. The next chapter delves into one of the ramifications of such a clash of political values. The consequence is a display of political anxiety (insecurity) on the part of the incumbent power elite.