Black Demographic Data, 1790-1860: A Sourcebook

By Clayton E. Cramer | Go to book overview

4
INTERNAL IMMIGRATION RESTRICTIONS

The territories, states, and the federal government adopted a variety of internal immigration restrictions. These laws primarily affected free blacks, because the only slaves who were making immigration decisions were runaways. (In a sense, state prohibitions on slavery were internal immigration restrictions, because masters risked loss of their slaves if they moved into a free state.) For this reason, most of the internal immigration restrictions were aimed at free blacks.

Not surprisingly, the slave states were among the earliest and most active in their efforts to exclude free blacks. Virginia prohibited the immigration of free blacks in 1793.1 Orleans Territory similarly prohibited free blacks from entering after 1804,2 as did Kentucky in 1808,3 Maryland in 1809, and Delaware in 1811. South Carolina prohibited immigration of free blacks in 18004 and added the threat of enslavement in 1822. Alabama prohibited free black immigration in 1832.5 But while slave states passed restrictive laws, they often did not enforce them. Virginia, for

____________________
1
Theodore Brantner Wilson, The Black Codes of the South ( University of Alabama Press: 1965), 16; Berlin, 92.
2
Thomas N. Ingersoll, "Free Blacks in a Slave Society: New Orleans, 1718-1812", William and Mary Quarterly, 48:2 ( April, 1991), 197.
3
Walker, Free Frank, 63.
4
Berlin, 92.
5
Wikramanayke, 19, 58, 166.

-31-

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Black Demographic Data, 1790-1860: A Sourcebook
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Limitations of Census Data 1
  • 2- Emancipation 7
  • 3- Manumission 19
  • 4- Internal Immigration Restrictions 31
  • 5- Disabilities, Slave-Dumping, And The 1840 Census 43
  • 6- International Black Migration 51
  • 7- Tables & Graphs 63
  • Bibliography 155
  • Index 161
  • About the Author *
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