Wittgenstein, Psychology, and Freud
In this chapter we will consider a number of the issues raised by Wittgenstein in relation to psychology and provide an introduction to Freud. We discuss Freud more fully in the next chapter. Freud used the term "psychoanalysis" to refer to his own work. In his polemical History of the Psychoanalytical Movement in 1941 he said: "Psychoanalysis is my creation. . . . For ten years I was the only one occupied with it. . . . Nobody knows better than I what psychoanalysis is." Why then should Wittgenstein often refer to him and his work with the notion of psychology (although there are exceptions, for example, Wittgenstein, 1982, p. 787)? That is one issue to be pursued, although a minor issue. The other more major issues to be considered in this chapter and the next ate: the scientific status of Freud's works (was it work like philosophy than science?), the analysis of dreams, rationality and dreams and madness, the therapeutic effects of analysis, and the indignity of Freud's notion of free association or the talking cure. First, we will explore Wittgenstein's approach to psychology and then provide a general introduction to Freud, Freud's Vienna, and psychoanalysis.
Wittgenstein did not change his views on philosophy. According to Baker and Hacker ( 1980, p. 463): "This is one of the main threads of continuity in Wittgenstein's opera." For him philosophy "clarifies which questions are intelligible and which investigations are in principle