Foreign Policy and Ethnic Interest Groups: American and Canadian Jews Lobby for Israel

By David Howard Goldberg | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
Steven Spiegel reports that some of the Pentagon officials perceived as being closest to the Israelis, especially at the Defense Intelligence Agency, were removed after the Yom Kippur War, possibly because it was felt that their judgment about the Middle East had been compromised by their Israeli contacts ( 1985, 222).
2.
In practical terms, reassessment meant a suspension of all new U.S. arms sales to Israel. The sale of F-15 aircraft and Lance ground-to-ground missiles, approved after Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin's November 1974 visit to Washington, was held in abeyance. Consideration of new economic assistance was also temporarily suspended. However, previously contracted purchases continued to arrive on time. The delay in fulfilling new commitments was designed to convey a clear message to Israel and its American supporters; in time, a delay in new aid and arms sales would erode Jerusalem's military budget and its military structure as well.
3.
As cited in the Nevi, York Times of May 23, 1975, the Letter of 76 reads as follows: "We believe that preserving the peace requires that Israel obtain a level of military and economic support adequate to deter a renewal of war by Israel's neighbors. Withholding military equipment from Israel would be dangerous, and encouraging a resort to force. . . . Within the next several weeks, the Congress expects to receive your foreign aid requirements for fiscal year 1976. We trust that your recommendations will be responsive to Israel's urgent military and economic needs. We urge you to make it clear, as we do, that the United States, acting in its own national interests, stands firm with Israel in the search for peace in future negotiations, and that this premise is the basis of the current reassessment of U.S. policy in the Middle East"(8).
4.
The Arab boycott of Jewish interests in Palestine dates informally from 1921. The boycott was formally instituted by the League of Arab States following the establishment of Israel in 1948. The boycott is essentially threefold in character. The "primary" boycott is a direct boycott of Israel and Israeli goods and services by Arab states, firms, and individuals. A "secondary" boycott is an attempt by Arabs to pressure firms or other countries to refrain from doing business with Israel or individuals sympathetic to Zionism as a precondition of trade with Arab states, firms, or individuals. The "tertiary" boycott of Israel entails pressure by Arab states to prevent firms of uninvolved third party states from dealing with firms of their own or other similarly uninvolved third party states because of the latter's relationship with Israel or its supporters as a condition for doing business with Arab states, firms, or individuals. A fourth type of boycott, known as a "voluntary" or "shadow" boycott or a "chilling effect," is the outgrowth of the secondary and tertiary boycotts, firms simply decline to deal with Israel or Jewish firms or individuals for fear of antagonizing present or prospective Arab clients ( Chill 1976; Nelson and Prittle 1977; Stanislawski 1981b, 107-22, Stanislawski 1983, 205; Teslik 1982, 9- 13; Turck 1977).
5.
As finally implemented, the 1978 package provided for the sale of forty-two F-5E fighters to Egypt, sixty-two F-15s to Saudi Arabia, and thirty-five F-15s and seventy- five F-16s to Israel.
6.
On October 14, 1981, the House of Representatives rejected the proposed sale by an almost three-to-one margin, 301 votes to 111. The following day the Senate Foreign Relations Committee voted nine to eight to recommend disapproval of the sale by the full Senate.

-98-

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Foreign Policy and Ethnic Interest Groups: American and Canadian Jews Lobby for Israel
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Political Science ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • 1 - Theory and Background 1
  • Notes 13
  • 2 - The American Israel Public Affairs Committee: History, Mandate, and Organizational Structure 15
  • Notes 27
  • 3 - The Canada-Israel Committee: History, Mandate, and Organizational Structure 29
  • Notes 42
  • 4 - Aipac and U.S. Middle East Policy: October 1973- December 1988 45
  • SUMMARY 97
  • Notes 98
  • 5 - The Cic and Canadian Middle East Policy: October 1973-- December 1988 101
  • SUMMARY 156
  • Notes 157
  • 6 - Findings and Conclusions 159
  • CONCLUSIONS 168
  • Bibliography 171
  • Index 193
  • About the Author 198
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