Foreign Policy and Ethnic Interest Groups: American and Canadian Jews Lobby for Israel

By David Howard Goldberg | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
See, for example, the Globe and Mail, July 16, 1975, A7; Montreal Gazette, July 14, 1975, A5; Montreal Star, July 16, 1975, A6; Winnipeg Tribune, July 18, 1975, 3; and Time, July 18, 1975, 23, and August 4, 1975, 19.
2.
The Commission on Economic Coercion and Discrimination was headed by McGill University law professor Irwin Cotler and was composed of a number of highly respected individuals from the political and academic domain, including a former Liberal cabinet minister and the former leader of the federal New Democratic party. It was mandated to examine the political, economic, and social ramifications for Canadians of the Arab boycott of Israelas well as other forms of economic, political, and religious discrimination. Its final report, published in January 1977, was highly critical of the Canadian government's handling of evidence about the knowing acquiescence by Canadian private companies and public agencies to discriminatory practices demanded by Arab governments (See Canada. Commission on Economic Coercion and Discrimination 1977).
3.
The Province of Manitoba also considered the application of antiboycott legislation. Although never enacted, such consideration "illustrated the widespread support which anti-boycott efforts could achieve" ( Stanislawski 1981b, 284).
4.
For example, a headline in the June 8, 1979, Ottawa Journal declared that "Arabs Threaten Economic 'War' Against Canada" (A1). The Montreal Star of the same day reported that "The Arab's Reply Could Cost 55,700 Jobs" (A1). The Toronto Star, in a June 8 editorial entitled "A Bad Foreign Policy Move," implored Ottawa to "give up the [embassy] promise as contrary to Canada's peacekeeping interest and its economic ties with the Arab world" (A1).
5.
The mandate of the Stanfield Commission of Inquiry was actually much broader. The commission was asked to place the Jerusalem embassy question within the context of Canada's overall relations with the Middle East and to provide "recommendations on ways of developing our relations with all the countries of the Middle East and North Africa to take full advantage of the many interests we share, and on the implementation of our policy on Jerusalem in a way that will be compatible with the efforts that are being made to achieve a comprehensive peace settlement in the Middle East" ( Canada. Department of External Affairs 1979; Final Report of the Special Representative of the Government of Canada Respecting the Middle East and North Africa 1980).
6.
In an editorial entitled "Tell the Arabs Where to Go," the Toronto Star, on June 23, 1979, called the lobbying campaign for policy reversal "unconscionable propaganda coupled with frequently undiplomatic moves by Moslem diplomats in Ottawa." The Toronto Sun recommended that Canada make it known that its foreign policy "is made in Ottawa, not in Baghdad, Riyadh, Teheran--or Jerusalem" ( Toronto Sun, June 21, 1979, 7). And the Ottawa Citizen decfied "the Arab arrogance" on the embassy issue and recommended that "Canada should simply ignore that rudeness and blackmail and refuse to be intimidated" ( Ottawa Citizen, July 25, 1979, 10).
7.
As indicated by the Canada-Israel Committee, the proper historical context concerning the Israeli invasion of Lebanon included the following: the destruction that the so-called Syrian peacekeepers had inflicted upon the authority of the Lebanese central government, and especially upon Lebanon's Christian population, since the civil war of 1975-1976; the way in which the PLO, with the support and concurrence of the governments of Syria, Libya, and the Soviet Union, had transformed the southern half of Lebanon into a veritable headquarters of international terrorism, and the way in which

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Foreign Policy and Ethnic Interest Groups: American and Canadian Jews Lobby for Israel
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Recent Titles in Contributions in Political Science ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Acknowledgments ix
  • 1 - Theory and Background 1
  • Notes 13
  • 2 - The American Israel Public Affairs Committee: History, Mandate, and Organizational Structure 15
  • Notes 27
  • 3 - The Canada-Israel Committee: History, Mandate, and Organizational Structure 29
  • Notes 42
  • 4 - Aipac and U.S. Middle East Policy: October 1973- December 1988 45
  • SUMMARY 97
  • Notes 98
  • 5 - The Cic and Canadian Middle East Policy: October 1973-- December 1988 101
  • SUMMARY 156
  • Notes 157
  • 6 - Findings and Conclusions 159
  • CONCLUSIONS 168
  • Bibliography 171
  • Index 193
  • About the Author 198
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