This book is an update and revision of a book I wrote in 1984. I had two primary purposes in mind when I undertook this revision. First, a great many things had happened in and to U.S. intelligence in the intervening years, chief among them the Iran-contra affair and its fallout, particularly the changes in congressional oversight; the collapse of, first, the Soviet Union's satellite empire and then of the Soviet Union itself and their effects on U.S. intelligence; and the Persian Gulf War. Second, from 1985 to 1989 I had the privilege of serving in the intelligence community in the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research, first as director of the Office of Strategic Forces Analysis and then as deputy assistant secretary for functional analysis. This professional experience and exposure led me to rethink many of the views I had held about how the intelligence community functions and relates to policymakers- key themes for this book.
Certain observations and themes of my earlier edition remain pertinent. First, this study does not purport to be a complete history of the U.S. intelligence community. Any history based on unclassified sources, as this one is, cannot claim to be complete. Nor can a study of this length treat many issues in depth. For that reason, I have relied heavily